24/7 eTV KusinthaNewsShow : Dinani pa batani la voliyumu (kumanzere kumanzere kwa kanema)
Culture mkonzi Malo olandirira alendo anthu USA Nkhani Zoswa Nkhani Zosiyanasiyana

Pansi pa Moyo Wachiyuda

Wafilosofi waku Germany, Martin Buber
Wafilosofi waku Germany, Martin Buber

Anthu aku Eastern Europe, makamaka Poland ndi Ukraine, anali osauka, nthawi zambiri osaphunzira, ndipo analibe ulemu komanso kutsogola kwa osankhika aku Western Europe. Chifukwa chakusiyana uku, ophunzira anzeru aku Western Europe nthawi zambiri adanyoza anthu aku Eastern Europe omwe amakhala kumayiko omwe adachokera ku Poland mpaka madera aku Russia komanso kuchokera ku Ukraine kupita ku Balkan.

Sangalalani, PDF ndi Imelo
Wafilosofi waku Germany, Martin Buber
  1. Nthawi yomaliza (kumapeto kwa zaka za 19th ndi koyambirira kwa zaka za zana la 20) inali nthawi yabwino kwambiri pamapepala asayansi aku Germany ndi nzeru zawo.
  2. Nthawiyi inalinso nthawi ya umphawi waukulu ku Eastern Europe.
  3. Kusiyanasiyana pakati pa mbali ziwirizi za ku Ulaya kunadziwonetsera m'njira zambiri. Western Europe inali yolemera, yotukuka komanso yotsogola.

Zomwe zinali zowona pagulu lonse la ku Europe, zinali zowona ndi dziko lachiyuda. Kumasulidwa kwa a Napoleon kwa Ayuda kuchokera ku ma ghettos aku France ndi Germany zidadzetsa mpungwepungwe wachiyuda mdera la Western Europe.

Ayuda aku Western Europe adalankhula chilankhulo cha dziko lawo ndipo adatsata miyambo yaku Europe. Ambiri adaphunzitsidwa kumayunivesite abwino kwambiri ku Europe. Monga momwe zimachitikira ndi anthu amtundu wawo, Ayuda ambiri aku Western Europe amakonda kunyoza Ayuda aku Eastern Europe. Unyinji wa Ayuda aku Poland, Russia ndi Ukraine anali osauka komanso osaphunzira pachilankhulo chakumadzulo komanso pachikhalidwe. Amakhala m'midzi yotchedwa shtetls (monga tafotokozera mu "Fiddler Pamwamba"). Ayuda aku Western Europe ndi America adawona abale awo akummawa ngati zizindikilo za chilichonse chomwe akufuna kuthawa.

Ndi m'chigawo chino chogawanika pomwe Myuda wamkulu Wafilosofi waku Germany, Martin Buber (1878-1965), adakhala gawo loyamba la moyo wake.

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 20, Buber anali m'modzi mwa akatswiri anzeru kwambiri ku Germany. Anayamba kukonda moyo wachiyuda waku Eastern Europe ndipo adakhala ngati mlatho wolumikiza maiko awiriwa.

Asanayambike Nazi Germany, Buber anali pulofesa ku University of Frankfort komanso wolemba mabuku wambiri m'Chijeremani ndi Chiheberi. Buku lake lofufuza nzeru zapamwamba "Ich und Du" (Ine ndi Inu) likuwerengedwanso padziko lonse lapansi.

Otsutsa ambiri komanso akatswiri ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba amaganiza kuti Buber ndi chimphona chakumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la 20 komanso malingaliro azikhalidwe. Ntchito yake yamaphunziro yakhudza kwambiri madera osiyanasiyana, kuphatikiza anthropology yazachipatala, psychology yanzeru, komanso chiphunzitso. Analinso womasulira Baibulo. Kumasulira kwa Buber ndi Rosenzweig kwa Malembo Achiheberi ndichinthu chodziwika kwambiri cholemba ku Germany.

Buber adachita chidwi ndi dziko lachiyuda chakum'mawa kwa Europe. Ngakhale anzake omwe ankayang'anitsitsa shtetl, Buber adapeza kuti pansi pa malo ovutawa, panali dziko lozama, dziko lomwe linali lovuta kwambiri komanso lotsogola. Zolemba zake zotchuka "Chassidic Tales" sizinangopereka ulemu kwa anthu onyozeka, koma zidawonetsa kuti malingaliro anzeru zafilosofi sanali chigawo chokha cha ophunzira akumadzulo.

Buber adabweretsa moyo osati gawo limodzi la moyo wa shtetl komanso ubale wake wauzimu ndi Mulungu.

Buber "akutiitanira" m'moyo wa shtetl. Akuwonetsa kuti midzi iyi, ngakhale inali yosauka pazinthu zakudziko, inali yolemera m'miyambo ndi uzimu.

Kuwerenga ntchito za Buber timaphunzira kuti anthu omwe amakakamizidwa kukhala pakati pa umphawi ndi tsankho adatha kusintha chiyembekezo kukhala zochita ndi chidani kukhala chikondi.

Titha kuwerenga "Nkhani Za Chasidic" za Buber m'magulu awiri. Pa gawo loyamba, timawerenga nkhani zonena za anthu omwe amayesera kuti akhale otukuka mdziko lodana, dziko lomwe kungopulumuka kunali kodabwitsa. Pamlingo wokulirapo, timapeza nzeru zapamwamba zomwe zimaphunzitsa owerenga kusangalala ndi moyo wokhumudwa.

Mu ntchito yonse ya Buber, timawona momwe anthu okhala shtetl adakhalira othandizana ndi Mulungu. Mosiyana ndi azungu "otukuka" aku Western Europe, anthu "osaphunzitsidwa" awa sanayese kufotokoza Mulungu. Amangokhala pachibwenzi ndi Mulungu. Anthu a shtetl amagwiritsa ntchito mawu mosamala. Ngakhale polankhula ndi Mulungu, kutengeka nthawi zambiri kumawonetsedwa kudzera munyimbo ya "neegoon": nyimbo yopanda mawu, yomwe kuyimba kwawo kudawabweretsa pafupi ndi Mulungu.

Martin Buber adatolera nthano izi, ndikuzikulunga m'maphunziro apamwamba, ndikuwapatsa ulemu mdziko lonse lakumadzulo.

Mabuku ake: "Hundert chassidische Geschichten" (Nkhani zana za Chassidic) ndi "Die Erzählungen der Chassidim" (Nkhani za Hasidic) zidawonetsa kuzama kwa mzimu pakati pa umphawi ndikuwonetsa kudziko lapansi nzeru zatsopano.

Adakwanitsa kuthana ndi chikhulupiriro champhamvu cha Ayuda aku Eastern Europe ndi moyo wowuma wamaphunziro waku West West, zomwe zidatisiyira funso kuti gululi linali labwino?

Buber adawonetsa momwe ophunzira akumadzulo adagawanirana zenizeni, pomwe mdziko la shtetl kunali kufunafuna thanzi. Buber adawululiranso nthanthi zakumadzulo ku lingaliro la tzimtzum: lingaliro la chidule chaumulungu motero kulola kuyeretsedwa kwa wamba. Kuwerenga Buber, tikuwona momwe okhala ma shtetls adapeza Mulungu paliponse chifukwa Mulungu adapanga malo momwe anthu amatha kukula.

Buber sasiya kulongosola za ubale wapakati pa umunthu ndi Mulungu (bein adam la-makom) komanso amalowa mdziko la ubale wapakati pa anthu (bein adam l'chaero).

Kwa Buber ndizochita zokha pakati pa anthu zomwe zimapanga bulangeti la chikondi ndi chitetezo ku kuzizira kwa chidani ndi tsankho. M'dziko la Buber, palibe magawano pakati pazandale ndi zauzimu, pakati pa ntchito ndi pemphero, pakati pa ntchito zapakhomo ndi zazikulu. Choonadi sichipezeka mosadziwika, mwachinsinsi koma mowonekera, pakuyanjana pakati pa munthu ndi moyo. Buber akuwonetsa momwe maubalewa amasinthira dziko lopanda mtima ndipo kudzera pachikhalidwe zimapangitsa moyo kukhala wosangalatsa.

Pamawonedwe a Buber a shtetl, palibe amene ali wabwino kapena woyipa kwathunthu. M'malo mwake, pali kusaka kwa teshuvah, kutembenuka ndikubwerera kwa Mulungu ndi uthunthu wake wonse.

Buber akutiwonetsera, monga Sholom Aleichem yemwe ndidalemba za iye mwezi watha, anthu wamba omwe amapeza Mulungu munthawi zonse zamoyo. Anthu a Buber samafika kupitilira anthu, koma amakhala moyo wawo m'njira yoti pokhala anthu amalumikizana ndi Mulungu. Buber akuwonetsera izi kudzera mu mawonekedwe a tzadik (mtsogoleri wauzimu komanso wamba). Tzadik imalemekeza tsiku lililonse, kulipangitsa kukhala loyera, kudzera mu chozizwitsa chakuyeretsa mayendedwe amoyo otopetsa komanso osasangalatsa.

Zolemba za Buber zimafotokoza dziko lomwe kulibe.

Powonongedwa ndi chidani cha Nazi Europe komanso tsankho, tatsala ndi nkhani zina, koma izi ndi nthano zomwe zimapangitsa moyo kukhala wamtengo wapatali, ndipo ndichifukwa cha wafilosofi wanzeru waku Germany yemwe adathawa ku Germany ndikukhazikitsanso moyo wake. mu Israeli, kuti ifenso titha kuyeretsa anthu wamba ndikupeza Mulungu mu chilichonse chomwe timachita.

Peter Tarlow ndia rabbi otuluka ku Texas A&M Hillel Foundation ku College Station. Ndi mlangizi wa College Station Police Police ndipo amaphunzitsa ku Texas A&M College of Medicine.

Sangalalani, PDF ndi Imelo

Ponena za wolemba

Dr. Peter E. Tarlow

Dr. Peter E. Tarlow ndi wokamba nkhani wodziwika padziko lonse lapansi komanso katswiri wodziwa zaumbanda ndi uchigawenga pamakampani opanga zokopa alendo, zochitika pamayendedwe ndikuwongolera ngozi, komanso zokopa alendo ndi chitukuko chachuma. Kuyambira 1990, Tarlow wakhala akuthandiza anthu okopa alendo ndi zovuta monga kuyenda ndi chitetezo, chitukuko cha zachuma, kutsatsa kwanzeru, ndi malingaliro opanga.

Monga wolemba wodziwika pantchito zachitetezo cha zokopa alendo, Tarlow ndi wolemba nawo mabuku angapo okhudzana ndi chitetezo cha zokopa alendo, ndipo amasindikiza zolemba zambiri zamaphunziro ndi kugwiritsa ntchito pazokhudza chitetezo kuphatikiza zolemba zomwe zidafalitsidwa mu The Futurist, Journal of Travel Research ndi Management kasamalidwe. Zolemba zambiri za akatswiri ndi zamaphunziro a Tarlow zimaphatikizaponso zolemba pamitu monga: "zokopa zakuda", malingaliro achigawenga, komanso chitukuko cha zachuma kudzera pa zokopa alendo, zachipembedzo komanso zauchifwamba komanso zokopa alendo. Tarlow amalembanso ndikufalitsa nkhani yodziwika bwino yapaulendo yapaulendo ya Tourism Tidbits yowerengedwa ndi akatswiri zikwizikwi ndi maulendo apaulendo padziko lonse lapansi m'zinenero zawo za Chingerezi, Chisipanishi, ndi Chipwitikizi.

https://safertourism.com/

Siyani Comment