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Pewani Kuda Nkhawa. Khalani Osangalala ndi Kumwa Bordeaux Les Nthano

Sangalalani. Imwani Bordeaux

Ndizosadabwitsa kuti vinyo amakhala m'malo angapo - kuchokera poyera monga madzi, mpaka kuya, mdima komanso wobiriwira ngati maveliveti a silika wamphesa. Sizodabwitsa kuti vinyo wa Bordeaux ndi ena mwa otchuka kwambiri m'chilengedwe chonse.

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  1. Dera la Bordeaux ndiye dera lalikulu kwambiri popanga vinyo ku France ndipo limaphatikizapo maekala 280,000 a mipesa ndi 60 Appellations d'Origine Controlees (AOCs).
  2. Kupanga vinyo kum'mwera chakumadzulo kwa France kudayamba pomwe Aroma adafika (talingalirani zaka zoyambirira).
  3. Ngakhale kuti malowa amatchuka chifukwa cha vinyo wofiira, ndizosangalatsa kudziwa kuti kutchuka kumeneku kwangopezekanso kumene.

Wochuluka wa Minda Yogulitsa

M'mbuyomu, dera la Bordeaux linali lofunikirako chifukwa cha (makamaka) ma vinyo oyera omwe amapanga ma winener omwe amapitilira 80% ya minda yawo yamphesa ku Sauternes, Barsac, Bordeaux Blanc ndi Graves.

Sizinapitirire zaka za m'ma 1700 vinyo wofiira wochokera ku Bordeaux chidwi pamsika ndipo okonda vinyo aku England adalandila vinyo wofiira wa Bordeaux wochokera ku Graves ndikuutcha Claret (klairette). Opanga winayo atazindikira kuchuluka kwa kugula vinyo wofiira, adayamba kusintha kuchokera ku zoyera ndikupanga vinyo wofiira. Kusinthaku kudakhala kovomerezeka mu Gulu la 1855 lomwe limazindikira opanga abwino kwambiri mderali, ndikuwapatsa 1-5. Gulu silinasinthidwe (kupatula kamodzi) ngakhale pali vinyo wina wabwino kwambiri.

Kuti muwonetsetse kuti malowa ndi otchuka kwambiri popanga vinyo, taganizirani kuti derali limathandizira eni nyumba za chateaux 6100 ndi alimi ena omwe amapanga mabotolo 650 miliyoni a vinyo (2019). Mpesa wa 2019 umaphatikizapo 85.2% yofiira; 4.4 peresenti inakwera; 9.2% yoyera yoyera, ndi 1.2% yoyera yoyera.

Bordeaux ndiye wolemba ntchito wamkulu mu viticulture komanso msika wamavinyo, wopereka ntchito zoposa 55,000 zachindunji komanso zosagwirizana. Malo atatu mwa 4 aliwonse olima m'derali amalima mipesa ndipo onse alipo 5,6000 opanga vinyo omwe amapanga vinyo wa AOC. Mwa awa 56 peresenti ndimabizinesi okhala ndi mabanja, okhala ndi munda wamphesa wokwanira 19.6ha wokhala ndi minda yamphesa yayikulu ku Entre deux Mers ndi Medoc. Pafupifupi 5% yamunda wamphesa wonse ku Bordeaux ndiwamagawo omwe amagawidwa m'mabanki akumanzere ndi akumanja (wnchinkhapala.org).

M'derali, eni malo ogulitsa ma chateaux nthawi zambiri amagulitsa mphesa zawo kudzera mwa munthu wopanda chidwi yemwe amakhala ngati munthu wapakati pogula magawo awo amphesa ndikugulitsa / kugawa vinyo womwe wabwerayo. Mwa vinyo wopangidwa mdera la Bordeaux, 58% imagulitsidwa mkati mwa France pomwe 43% yotsala imatumizidwa kunja.

Osati Ndale. Geography: Kumanzere, Kumanja, Pakati

Dera la Bordeaux lagawidwa mwapadera ndi chigwa cha Gironde kukhala Left Bank, Right Bank ndi Entre-Deux-Mer (dera lomwe lili pakati pa Gironde Estuary ndi Mtsinje wa Dordogne).

Banki yakumanzere. Okonda vinyo amapeza Medoc, Graves ndi Sauternais (malo abwino kwambiri - miyala yoyala)

• Zolemba za Medoc Cabernet Sauvignon; Mphesa zimamera mukusakanizika ndi dothi losalala komanso masitepe amiyala yonse.

• Manda amakhala ndi Cabernet Sauvignon; nthaka yamiyala chifukwa cha mbiri yakale yozizira.

• Sauternais imakhala ndi ma Sauternes (mavinyo oyera oyera); nthaka yolimba kwambiri yomwe imathandiza ngalande, kuletsa mphesa kukhala ndi madzi ochulukirapo.

Banki Yakumanja. Okonda vinyo amapeza Libournais, Balye ndi Bourg (dothi lolamulidwa ndi dongo ndi miyala yamwala)

• Libournais ili ndi Saint-Emilion, Montagne, Pomerol, Fronsac, Cotes de Castillon; makamaka dothi lamiyala, lamchenga komanso siliceous dothi.

• Balye ali ndi Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon ndi Cabernet Franc; makamaka dongo pamiyala yamiyala.

• Bourg ili ndi Malbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, ndi Semillon komanso Colombard ndi Ungi; mchenga, dongo, miyala ndi miyala yamiyala.

Entre-Deux-Mers (mavinyo oyera okha ndi omwe amatchedwa ma AOC); Cadillac, Loupiac, Sainte-Croix-du Mont

• Cadillac (wodziwika ndi ma vinyo oyera otsekemera) amakhala ndi Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc ndi Sauvignon Gris; dothi lopanda miyala.

• Loupiac ili ndi Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle ndi Sauvignon Gris; dongo, nthaka yamiyala yopangidwa ndi miyala ndi dongo.

• Sante-Croix-du Mont ili ndi Semillon, Muscadelle, ndi Sauvignon; dongo, nthaka yamiyala.

Vinyo woyera wa Bordeaux nthawi zambiri amapangidwa ndi Sauvignon Blanc ndi Semillon ndipo amadziwika kuti ndiwosangalatsa komanso watsopano (Entre-Deux-Mers) ofewa komanso ofewa (Pessac-Leognan).

Mavinyo ofiira ochokera ku Bordeaux nthawi zambiri amakhala odzaza ndi zonunkhira zakuda ma currants, ma plums ndi nthaka kapena miyala yonyowa. M'kamwa, mawonekedwe amakomedwe amaphatikizapo kuchepa, zipatso ndi zonunkhira, kupereka ma tannins ambiri (abwino okalamba).

Bordeaux wofiira nthawi zambiri amakhala wosakanikirana ndi zilembo zomwe zimafotokoza dzina la vinyo m'malo mofotokozera mphesa zosiyanasiyana. Mitundu yoyera imakhala ndi 100% yotsala ya mipesa yobzalidwa, ndi 5% Sauvignon Blanc ndi Semillon yokhala ndi XNUMX% Muscadelle ndi azungu ena.

Mwa mipesa yomwe idabzalidwa mderali, 89% ndi mitundu yofiira, 59% Merlot, 19% Cabernet Sauvignon, 8% Cabernet Franc ndipo awiri omaliza ndi Petit Verdot, Malbec kapena Carmenere.

Kaya Nyengo

Mipesa ya Bordeaux imakonda nyengo yotentha yayitali, yotentha ndi kugwa, kenako nyengo yozizira. La Foret des Landes, nkhalango yayikulu yamitengo ya paini, imateteza dera la Bordeaux ku zovuta zam'madzi za m'nyanja ya Atlantic; Komabe, kusintha kwa nyengo kumakhudza dera lino ndikukolola zokolola. Institut National de l'origine et de la Qualite (INAO), gawo la Unduna wa zaulimi ku France, adakhala zaka khumi akufufuza zakusintha kwanyengo. Asayansi a vinyo ndi olima ku Bordeaux amalingalira mozama za kutentha kwanyengo ndipo mitundu yatsopano yomwe idavomerezedwa posachedwa yoyenererana bwino kuti ichepetse kupsinjika kwama hydric komwe kumakhudzana ndi kuwonjezeka kwa kutentha komanso kuzungulira kwakanthawi.

Mu Juni, 2019, mabungwe a Bordeaux ndi Bordeaux Superieur Associations adavomereza kuti awonjezere mitundu isanu ndi iwiri yamatenda yopanda kutentha ndipo izi zikuyimira kusintha koyamba pamitundu 13 yoyambirira m'chigawochi kuyambira 1935. Mitundu isanu ndi iwiri yatsopano yovomerezedwa ndi yofiira (Marselan, Touriga Nacional, Castets, Arinarnoa), ndi zoyera (Alvarinho, ndi Lilorila) zokhala ndi mbeu zoyamba kubzalidwa chaka chino. Mitundu yatsopanoyo imangokhala ndi 5% yamunda wamphesa wobzalidwa ndipo sungathe kuwerengera zoposa 10 peresenti yamtundu uliwonse wamtundu uliwonse.

Bordeaux yakhazikitsa njira zina zaukadaulo ndiulimi kuthana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo kuphatikizapo: Kuchepetsa kupatulira masamba kuti muteteze mphesa ku dzuwa; kusinthitsa malo amphika kuti muchepetse kupsinjika kwa madzi (kosatha kapena kosakwanira nyengo chifukwa cha madzi kumabweretsa vuto la anaerobic); kukolola usiku ndikuchepetsa kuchepa kwa mbewu.

Zotheka

Oposa 65 peresenti ya minda yamphesa ya Bordeaux ndizovomerezeka zachilengedwe (choyimira chatsopano m'derali). Bordeaux amatsogolera ma French AOPs onse pamtengo wa High Environmental Value (HVE) pazakudya zawo, atafika pamwambamwamba pazitsimikiziro zokhazikika ku France komanso kuwonjezeka kwa 30% muulimi.

Opanga winem ku Bordeaux amagawana malingaliro ndi kudzipereka kuti athe kuthana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo posunga madzi osowa ndi magetsi; kuteteza zachilengedwe zosalimba; komanso kuthandizira zamoyo zosiyanasiyana kuyambira njira zabwino zamunda wamphesa kupita kuzinthu zina. Kudzipereka kukhazikika kumaphatikizapo chidwi chokhazikitsa chitetezo cha ogwira ntchito, kukhutira pantchito ndi maphunziro ndi chitukuko / maphunziro a mibadwo yapano komanso yamtsogolo.

Vinyo Wofunika Kwambiri ku Bordeaux

Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite) Les Legendes Zimapangitsa Vinyo Wabwino Kukhala Wotsika mtengo

Mbiri ya vinyo wa Lafite ndi Latour amatha zaka zambiri. Nthawi yoyamba yomwe dzina la Lafite limapezeka kuyambira m'zaka za zana la 13 (1234) pomwe Gombaud de Lafite, abbot wa Vertheuil Monastery (kumpoto kwa Pauillac) akutchulidwa. Dzinalo Lafite limachokera ku chilankhulo cha Gascon "la hite" kapena hillock.

Zikuwoneka kuti minda yamphesa idali kale pamalowo pomwe banja la Segur lidakonza mundawo m'zaka za zana la 17 ndipo Lafite adayamba kudziwika ngati malo opangira winayo. M'zaka za zana la 18 Lafite adayamba kukafufuza msika waku London ndipo adadziwika mu London Gazette (1707) pofotokoza za vinyo ngati ma French New clarets. Robert Walpole, Prime Minister, adagula mbiya ya Lafite miyezi itatu iliyonse. Chidwi cha ku France pa vinyo wa Bordeaux sichinayambe mpaka patadutsa zaka zambiri kutsatira ma Brits.

M'zaka za zana la 18 Marquis Nicolas Alexandre de Segur adakonza njira zopangira vinyo ndikupangitsa kutchuka kwa vinyo wabwino m'misika yakunja makamaka ku Khothi la Versailles. Wodziwika kuti "Kalonga wa Vinyo," Lafite adakhala The Kings Wine mothandizidwa ndi kazembe wokhoza, a Marechal de Richelieu. Richelieu atasankhidwa kukhala Kazembe wa Guyenne, adapita kwa dokotala ku Bordeaux yemwe adamulangiza kuti Chateau Lafite anali "wabwino kwambiri komanso wosangalatsa kuposa ena onse." Richeliu atabwerera ku Paris, a Louis XV adamuwuza kuti, "Marechal, ukuwoneka wachichepere zaka XNUMX kuposa momwe udaliri popita ku Guyenne." Richeliu adati adapeza Kasupe wa Achinyamata wokhala ndi vinyo wa Chateau Lafite yemwe, "wokoma, wowolowa manja, wokoma mtima, wofanana ndi ambrosia ya Milungu ya Olympus."

Lafite adadziwika kwambiri ku Versailles ndipo adalandira chivomerezo cha King. Aliyense tsopano amafuna vinyo a Lafite ndipo Madame de Pompadour adamupatsa mgonero wake ndipo Madame du Barry adatumikira Wine King yekha.

Vinyo wamtengo wapatali wa Bordeaux wa French aristocracy (Domaines Barons de Rothschild / Lafite) amapezeka kwa ife kudzera mu mtundu wa Legende.

1.            Bakuman Medoc 2018. 50% Merlot, 40% Cabernet Sauvignon, 10% Petit Verdot. Okalamba pang'ono mu thundu kwa miyezi isanu ndi itatu ndikupereka manambala a vanila ndi otsika pansi.       

Diso limakondwera ndi utoto wofiira kwambiri pomwe mphuno imasangalatsidwa ndi kununkhira kolimba mtima kwa zonunkhira zokoma, zipatso zofiira, kusakaniza kokoma, kowawa, mchere ndi wowawasa (think licorice), wopititsidwa patsogolo ndi zolemba za mocha ndi toast kuchokera kukalamba mbiya . Kukomako kumakhalabe mkamwa kuwonetsa chokumana nacho chomwe ndi chosachedwa kudya komanso chokoma kupatsa kutsitsimuka kumapeto. Phatikizani ndi ng'ombe, mwanawankhosa, nyama yankhumba, kapena nkhuku.

2.            Bakuman R Pauillac 2017. 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 30% Merlot. Makumi asanu ndi limodzi peresenti azaka zambiri mumtengo waukulu waku France kwa miyezi 12.

Kuwona koyamba kwa vinyo wofiirayu wokhala ndi malingaliro akuda kukuwonetsa kuti idzakhala yotsogola komanso yanzeru. Mphuno imapeza maluwa abwino, zonunkhira, vanila ndi mwala mosangalala mosakanikirana. Chodzidalira pakamwa, chimapereka zipatso zakuda, kokonati, ndi vanila wokhala ndi matani okutidwa. Awa ndi vinyo wathunthu ndipo izi zimapanga mawu olimba mtima. Phatikizani ndi nyama yang'ombe, mphodza, tchizi wokhwima monga Comte ndi Saint Netaire.

3.            Lembani Saint-Emilion 2016. 95% Merlot, 5% Cabernet Franc (ochokera kudera la Libourne). Makumi anayi pa zana ali okalamba m'miphika ya oak yaku France.

Kuyang'ana koyamba pa vinyoyu kumapereka utoto wonyezimira wakuda wakuda. Mphuno imakhala yosangalala ikapeza licorice, plums, yamatcheri, matabwa ndi fodya. M'kamwa mumalandira mphotho ndi malingaliro a mocha, zitsamba, ma clove, mafuta onunkhira, matabwa akale komanso kapangidwe kansalu. Phatikizani ndi bakha kapena masewera a masewera ndi quince jelly, phewa la mwanawankhosa wokazinga ndi rosemary kapena thyme, pizza ndi pasitala napolitana kapena lasagna.

4.            Lembali R Bordeaux Rouge 2018. 60% Cabernet Sauvignon, 40% Merlot.

Okalamba miyezi 9 m'mitsuko ya konkriti ndi 60% yamaphatikizidwe omaliza okalamba m'miphika.

Kapezi wamaso ndi zipatso zofiira ndi mabulosi akuda, licorice ndi zonunkhira zokoma zomwe zimanyengerera mphuno, makamaka chidwi monga kununkhira kwa mocha ndi toast kuchokera ku mbiya yokalamba mpaka nthawi. Mwatsopano ndi zipatso m'kamwa, mathero ndi zipatso zokoma. Phatikizani ndi risotto ndi msuzi wa nyama, pasitala ya Bolognese, ham ndi salami. 

5.            Lembali R Bordeaux Blanc 2020. 70 peresenti Sauvignon Blanc, 30% Semillon.

Diso limakondwera ndi mtundu wachikasu wagolide wonyezimira ndi udzu. Mphuno imalandira mphotho ndi malingaliro azipatso zam'malo otentha komanso malingaliro azocheperako. M'kamwa mumakopedwa ndi zonunkhira zozungulira komanso zodzaza ndi thupi zomwe zimabweretsa zipatso zosangalatsa. Phatikizani ndi nsomba, oysters yaiwisi, chilichonse chokhala ndi msuzi wa Bearnaise ndi saladi wobiriwira (osavala viniga).

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

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Ponena za wolemba

Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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