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Vinyo Wolemera ku Italy Palibe Chatsopano: Mphesa Zimapita Nawo

Artist: Miki De Goodaboom

Italy ndi dziko lokhalo padziko lapansi lomwe lili ndi viticulture m'zigawo zake zonse, kuyambira kugombe lachinyontho mpaka kumunsi kwa mapiri a Apennine, Alps ku Italy ndi Dolomites. Mipesa imakula kuchokera kumtunda wa madigiri 36 pachilumba chakumwera kwenikweni kwa Pantelleria mpaka pafupifupi madigiri 47 m'chigwa cha Alpine cha Valtelina.

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  1. Amamera m'madera osiyanasiyana a pedoclimatic (microclimate m'nthaka yomwe imagwirizanitsa zotsatira za kutentha, madzi ndi mpweya).
  2. Pafupifupi 28 peresenti ya mitundu ya mphesa padziko lonse imachokera ku Italy.
  3. Zoposa 85 peresenti ya nthaka ya ku Italy imaperekedwa ku viticulture yokhala ndi mitundu yayitali yokhazikika (ngakhale palibe mitundu ikuluikulu).

Kodi pangakhale vinyo popanda Italy?

Ndizosangalatsa kudziwa kuti chifukwa cha ndale zadziko (mpaka theka lachiwiri la zaka za zana la 19), komanso kufunikira kwa misika yakumaloko (kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1970), kuti kusiyanasiyana kwakukula kwapangitsa kuti dziko la Italy lisungidwe. cholowa cholemera kwambiri cha mitundu ya mphesa yomwe ilipo kuyambira kalekale.

Vinyo ndi Wosiyanasiyana komanso Wovuta

Sangiovese, mphesa zofiira za ku Italy zomwe zimalimidwa kwambiri m'dziko lonselo, sizimafika pa 12 peresenti ya malo omwe amalimako mpesa, pomwe mnzake wa mphesa zoyera, Trebbiano Toscano, amapeza zosakwana 7 peresenti, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti kukula kwa vinyo ku Italy kukhale kosiyana modabwitsa. Katswiri wina wa mphesa Anna Schneider anayerekezera kuti pali mitundu pafupifupi 2000 ya mphesa zakubadwa zomwe zimalimidwa ku Italy (kuyambira 2006). Akatswiri ena amati pafupifupi mitundu 1000 ya mphesa zomwe zimalimidwa ku Italy zadziwika ndipo 600 zikugwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga. vinyo mu kuchuluka kwa malonda.

National Registry of Grape Varieties

Ngati mtundu wa mphesa sunatchulidwe mu National Registry, palibe mbewu zamitundumitundu zomwe zitha kupezeka kuti zifalitsidwe ku nazale zamalonda. Pakadali pano pali mitundu 461 ya mphesa yovomerezeka, koma anthu wamba ndi mabungwe akugwira ntchito kuphatikiza ena. Pa mphesa zobzalidwa pamwamba makumi awiri ku Italy, 16 ndi zakwawo ndipo zinayi zakunja (Merlot, Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio ndi Cabernet Sauvignon) ndi Merlot ndi Chardonnay mu khumi apamwamba.

Mitundu ya mphesa: Yogawidwa m'magulu atatu

  1. Native (kapena mbadwa)
  • Mayiko (kapena akunja)
  • Traditional

Mphesa zimatengedwa kuti ndi zakwawo ngati "zidabadwira" pamalo enaake ndipo zakhalabe zogwirizana ndi malowo. Ndizotheka kuti ambiri otchedwa "mphesa zaku Italy" kwenikweni ndi ochokera ku Greek kapena Middle East, zotumizidwa ndi magulu ankhondo achiroma obwerera, amalonda aku Foinike oyenda panyanja ndi atsamunda achi Greek. Ian D'Agata adatsimikiza kuti, "Kunena zoona, osati zonse Mphesa za ku Italy chifukwa chake ndi a komweko ndipo atha kukhala mawu abwino kufotokoza mitundu yamtunduwu yomwe chiyambi chake sichinali Chitaliyana… ”

osalimba

Mphesa zakomweko (mosiyana ndi Cabernet Sauvignon ndi Chardonnay) sizolimba ndipo zimakopeka mosavuta ndi:

  1. Nthaka
  • Virus
  • Njira zakale zopangira vinyo (mwachitsanzo, kuthyola mphesa zonse nthawi imodzi, posatengera kukhwima koyenera)
  • Kusowa kwaukhondo wa cellar (zomwe zimathandizira kuti vinyo awonongeke)
  • Kusintha kwa nyengo
  • Kusakhazikika kwa mphesa

Zotsatira (nthawi zina):

  1. Kulawa kwa vinyo woyambirira wa ku Italy ndi wosiyana ndi vinyo wamakono
  • Mphesa zimatulutsa tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timapanga tinthu tating'onoting'ono
  • Zofunikira zamitundu ina zimakhala zodzaza ndi okosijeni komanso zopanda acidity zomwe zimawonetsa mavinyo osawoneka bwino
  • Mphesa zimakhwima nthawi zosiyanasiyana ndipo zipatso zosapsa zobiriwira zimakhala pafupi ndi zakupsa. Zipatso zosapsa zimatha kuchotsedwa; komabe, ndi njira yokwera mtengo, yowononga nthawi yomwe imapangidwa ndi manja kapena makina okwera kwambiri opangira mawonekedwe. Ngati kusanja sikunachitike chifukwa chake vinyo amatha kukhala ndi fungo lobiriwira lamasamba ndi kukoma.
  • Njira zamakono zopangira vinyo zitha kukhala zowopsa kwa mphesa zaku Italy ndipo ntchito ya yisiti ikhoza kuchepetsedwa. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya yisiti yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito muzowitsa zoledzeretsa imatha kubweretsa zotsatira zosiyana siyana ngakhale mphesa zomwezo, zomwe zimakula mu dothi lofanana, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Mitundu Yamphesa Yachilengedwe (Yosankhidwa)

1.            Aglianico del Taburno DOCG (La Fortezza Soc. Agr. Srl). Yakhazikitsidwa ngati DOC mu 1986; kukhala DOCG mu 2011. Wachibadwidwe ku Campania, Basilicata (zigawo zakum'mwera) mphesa zimatulutsa zofiira ndi maluwa. Pamodzi ndi Sangiovese ndi Nebbiolo, Aglianico ndi imodzi mwa mitundu itatu yayikulu ya ku Italy. Nthawi zambiri vinyo wochokera ku mtundu uwu amatchedwa Barolo wakumwera chifukwa cha mphamvu yake yotulutsa vinyo wonyezimira kwambiri. Vinyo wopangidwa kuchokera ku Aglianico ndi garnet wozama m'maso wokhala ndi fungo la chokoleti ndi maula ndipo amakhala wodzaza thupi ndi kutentha kwambiri, acidity yambiri komanso kukalamba. M'kupita kwanthawi, zipatsozo zimamveka bwino ndipo ma tannins amakhala okhazikika.

2.            La Fortezza. 100 peresenti Aglianico del Taburno DOCG. Ruby wofiira m'maso, mphuno imapeza fungo la zipatso zakuda zakutchire. Ndi yofewa m'kamwa ndi zolemba zosangalatsa za kupanikizana kwa chitumbuwa chakuda. Mphesa zimakololedwa pamanja kumapeto kwa Okutobala ndipo zimatha miyezi 8 muzitsulo, miyezi ina 10 mu barrique ndiyeno m'migolo. Vinyo uyu amayenera kutsukidwa nthawi isanakwane. Kutumikira ndi pasitala, nyama (makamaka yowotcha, mphodza ndi sauces) ndi/kapena tchizi wakale.

3.            Lambrusco Modena DOC (Cantina Ventiventi Societa Agricola Il Borghetto). Mphesa ziyenera kulimidwa m'chigawo cha Modena ndikuphatikiza mitundu yotsatirayi (85-100 peresenti): Grasparossa Lambrusco, Lambrusco Salami, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Lambrusco Marani, Lambrusco Maestri, Lambrusco Montericco, Oliva Lambrusco (yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito yokha kapena yololedwa kuwonjezera kwa Ancellotta kwa mtundu) mphesa, Malbo Gentile ndi/kapena Fontana mphesa (mpaka 15 peresenti). Mphesa zimatulutsa vinyo wofiira wonyezimira wonyezimira wa mtundu wa ruby, fungo losakhwima ndi kutsekemera pakamwa kowonjezeredwa ndi zolemba zamaluwa.

Nyengo yake imakhala yotentha ndi nyengo yotentha komanso yozizira. Dothi la m’chigwa cha Emilia Romagna lili ndi mchere wambiri wa mchere ndipo minda ya mpesa m’mphepete mwa phiri ili ndi dongo lokhala ndi mchenga, kutulutsa vinyo wopepuka komanso wosangalatsidwa akali aang’ono.

Vinyo amatha kukhala m'botolo ndipo nthawi zambiri amafufuzidwa pogwiritsa ntchito njira zachikhalidwe. Kupondereza sikungapitirire malita 80 omwe ndi apamwamba pang'ono kuposa Champagne. Kuwotchera kumachitika pamalo otsika kwambiri (madigiri 23-25) kuti asunge fungo la zipatso zatsopano ndikuchotsa ma tannins angapo.

•             Cantina Ventiventi Rose Lambrusco Di Modenado. 100 peresenti Sorbara mphesa.

Banja la Razzaboni lili ndi munda wamphesawu mumzinda wa Modenese ku Medolla. Munda wamphesa umagwiritsa ntchito Metodo Classico, kupanga vinyo watsopano komanso wosiyana. Zotsimikizika za organic mu 2019, zokolola zamakina zimakonzedwa kuti zizizizira kwambiri masana. Mphesazo zimaziziritsidwa ndikuzipanikiza mofewa. Nayonso mphamvu ikuchitika pansi ankalamulira kutentha zitsulo zosapanga dzimbiri ndi yaitali ozizira kuyenga mu zitsulo. Kuwonjezera ayenera ndi yachiwiri nayonso mphamvu mu botolo kumachitika pansi ankalamulira kutentha.

Pinki yofewa m'maso, yokhala ndi zipatso zofiira zopatsa mphuno. Wofewa komanso wokoma m'kamwa molingana ndi minerality. Kutopa komanso kosalekeza perlage kumawonjezera mwatsopano. Gwirizanani ndi nsomba zam'madzi.

4.            Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC (yofanana ndi French Ugni Blanc)

Abruzzo ndi dera la vinyo lomwe lili chapakati chakum'mawa kwa Italy m'mphepete mwa nyanja ya Adriatic Sea. Malinga ndi malamulo a DOC, vinyo wa Trebbiano d'Abruzzo ayenera kupangidwa kuchokera ku 85 - 100 peresenti ya Trebbiano Toscano kapena Trebbiano Abruzzese kapena kuphatikiza kwa magulu awiriwa.

Mphesa ya Trebbiano d'Abruzzo inalembedwa mu 1856 ndi Raffaele Sersante yemwe adawona kutchuka ndi kufalikira kwa mitundu ya mphesa m'minda yamphesa. Ndi mphesa ya vinyo woyera yobereka kwambiri yomwe inachokera ku South-Eastern Mediterranean. Amakula bwino m'dothi la argillo-calcareous. Pakali pano zodzala ndi theka la vinyo woyera m'dzikoli.

Vinyowo ndi wagolide mumtundu, wowuma komanso zipatso - patsogolo ndi maluwa ofewa a zipatso zachikasu, maapulo, zest ndimu ndi maluwa oyera kumphuno. M'kamwa mumapeza acidity yoyenera, yolimbikitsa, yowoneka bwino, yokongola yachikasu. Opanga ena amagwiritsa ntchito kuwira kwa mbiya ndi/kapena kukhwima kwa mbiya kuti awonjezere zovuta, kuya ndi thupi. Ndi DOC yokhayo ku Abruzzo yokhazikika pa vinyo woyera. Imwani achinyamata ndi ozizira. Phatikizani ndi pasitala, risotto, supu yamasamba, nsomba yowotcha kapena yowotcha.

•             Azienda Vinicola Talmonti. 100 peresenti Trebbiano

Yoyambitsidwa ndi banja la a Di Tonno ku Abruzzi munda wamphesa wamahekitala 32 umapangidwa ndi dongo la miyala yamchere, dothi la calcareous lomwe limapangidwa ndikutsanulidwa, 300 metres pamwamba pa nyanja. Kusankhidwa bwino kwa mphesa kumapangidwa kumayambiriro kwa September. Mapesi a mphesa amachotsedwa ndikutsatiridwa ndi maceration ochepa ozizira a mphesa zophwanyidwa muzitsulo zosapanga dzimbiri zotsatiridwa ndi kukanikiza kofewa ndi decanting ya ayenera. Kutentha kwa mowa ndi yisiti yosankhidwa kumatenga masiku 10; bottling kumachitika miyezi ingapo pambuyo kukolola.

Udzu wotumbululuka wokhala ndi mitundu yobiriwira yobiriwira umasangalatsa m'maso, umapereka maluwa olemera omwe amawonjezeredwa ndi kununkhira kwamaluwa amtundu wa violets wokhala ndi maapulo, chitumbuwa ndi pichesi kumphuno. Kanthawi kochepa kamene kamakhala mu mbiya kumapanga vinyo wokhala ndi ma tannins omwe ali wandiweyani koma osawoneka bwino ndipo mapeto ake ndi okoma, oyera komanso atsopano. Kutumikira monga aperitif ndi/kapena ndi nkhuku, nsomba zam'nyanja, nkhumba kapena nyama.

5.            Aglianico Riserva (La Guardiense - Sannio 2014)

Aglianico ndi mphesa zakuda zomwe zimamera kumadera akumwera kwa Italy (Basilicata ndi Campania). Amaganiziridwa kuti anachokera ku Greece ndipo amalimidwa ndi a Focians kuchokera ku mpesa wa makolo osadziwika; komabe, kusanthula kwamakono kwa DNA sikugwirizana ndi lingaliroli chifukwa likuwonetsa kugwirizana pang'ono ndi mitundu ina ya mphesa yachi Greek. Zosiyanasiyana zidayamba kusindikizidwa ngati kuchuluka kwa akazi Aglianiche (1520). Katswiri wa zamoyo Denis Duboudieu anatsimikiza kuti “Aglianico mwina ndi mphesa yokhala ndi mbiri yakale yogula zinthu zonse.” Anagwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga vinyo wa ku Falemian m'nthawi ya Aroma, vinyo wotchuka kwambiri wopangidwa ku Roma wakale ndipo Pliny Wamkulu ankamulemekeza.

Agianico ndi vinyo wofiira wokhala ndi mawonekedwe, acidity wamoyo komanso kukalamba. Fungo lamaluwa, ndipo nthawi zina ma tannins osalowetsedwa amalowerera poyesa kusangalala ndi mchere wokoma. Ndi zosunthika, ndipo mavinyo ochokera kumitundu iyi amatha kusangalatsidwa ndi achinyamata komanso achikulire. Nthawi zambiri poyerekeza ndi Nebbiolo, mphesa zazikulu za Barolo ndi Barbaresco. Kuphatikizidwa ndi dera la Campania kumwera kwa Italy kuchokera ku Nyanja ya Tyrrhenian kuphatikiza Naples, Pompeii, Amalfi Coast, Salerno ndi Paestrum. Amakhala ku Basilicata.

(La Guardiense - Sannio 2014). 100 peresenti Aglianico

Diso limakondwera ndi utoto wofiyira wakuya komanso wakuda pomwe mphuno imazindikira kusakanikirana kwa chitumbuwa ndi vanila (kuchokera ku migolo), kuphatikiza zolemba zokometsera. Mkamwa umasangalatsidwa ndi ma tannins omwe amapanga kukoma kofewa komanso kosalala.

Mphesa zimakololedwa theka lachiwiri la October. Maceration pazikopa kwa masiku 18 ndikupopera pang'ono tsiku lililonse, 20 peresenti amakhetsa magazi. Apres-ski yabwino; phatikizani ndi pasitala/msuzi wa nyama, supu ya masamba, chiuno cha nkhumba, nyama yowotcha yamwanawankhosa, ndi nyama zochiritsidwa.

6.            Sfozato (kukakamiza mphesa) DOCG

Sfozato imapanga vinyo wofiira wamphamvu kutengera mtundu wa mphesa wa Nebbiolo ku Valtellina, chigawo cha Lombardy kumpoto kwa Italy. Imakwaniritsa kuchuluka kwa mowa komanso kuyika kwambiri poyanika mphesa (passito). Mphesa zabwino kwambiri zimasankhidwa ndipo zipatso zilizonse zowola kapena zowonongeka ziyenera kuchotsedwa pamene kuyanika kumakhudza zolakwikazo.

Magulu onse amaikidwa pamphasa za udzu m'zipinda zokhala ndi mpweya wabwino momwe amakhala kwa miyezi 3-4, ndipo mabulosi aliwonse amataya pafupifupi 40 peresenti ya kulemera kwake chifukwa chachikulu cha kutuluka kwa madzi komwe kumapangitsa shuga wachilengedwe wa mphesa. Madziwo amasanduka madzi okoma ndipo mtundu wa Sforzato umapanga vinyo wathunthu, mowa wambiri komanso wokoma kwambiri, wopatsa fungo lokoma la zonunkhira (mwachitsanzo, licorice, cloves ndi sinamoni), ma plums, prunes ndi zoumba. zizindikiro za phula ndi maluwa.

•             Azienda Agricola Alberto Marsetti

Munda wamphesawo unakhazikitsidwa mu 1986 ndi Alberto Marsetti ndipo amakhulupirira kuti Nebbiolo ili ndi kukoma kochuluka ndi nyengo yoyenera. Munda wa mpesa wa mahekitala 10 uli ku Sondrio komwe nthaka ndi yamchenga chifukwa cha kusweka kwa miyala yomwe ili pamwamba pake.

Sfursat della Valtellina DOCG ndi vinyo wakale kwambiri wa Valtellina. Ortensio Lando (1540) adatchulapo ndi zolemba zina zolemba Sforzato kumayambiriro kwa 1300. Vinyoyo adapangidwa kuti azigwiritsidwa ntchito pabanja ndipo amaperekedwa ngati mankhwala obwezeretsa matenda. Masiku ano mitundu yosiyanasiyana imadziwika kuti vinyo wolemekezeka wa Valtellina. Wokalamba m'mabarriques, vinyo amatulutsa fungo labwino la morello-chitumbuwa mu mowa wokhala ndi tannins ofewa komanso acidity yabwino. Phatikizani ndi chokoleti chakuda.

Tsogolo la Mphesa Zachilengedwe

Mphesa zosawerengeka zimadziwika ndi mawu ambiri kuphatikiza osadziwika, esoteric, zachilendo, zakwawo, autochthonous kapena kuyiwalika. Wogwiritsa ntchito vinyo wamba angadabwe kuti chifukwa chiyani ma somm kapena ma wine geek amasangalala kwambiri "kuzindikira" mphesa zakale. Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti kutenga vinyo wopangidwa kuchokera ku mphesa yosadziwika bwino ndi "pamwamba" chifukwa zimapereka kusiyana ndi kusintha kwa kukoma kwa vinyo. Kusiyanasiyana kumafunidwa kwambiri padziko lapansi la vinyo ndipo kuthekera kwa mazana (kapena masauzande) a mitundu ya mphesa sikofunikira kokha ngati ntchito, kusungitsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zomera, komanso kumapereka chitetezo pakulimbana ndi kutentha kwa dziko.

Madera a vinyo ku Europe konse ayamba malo osungirako zachilengedwe kuti asunge mitundu yosowa yachilengedwe. Kum'mwera kwa France, Domaine de Vassal, nazale ya boma (1878) imasunga mitundu pafupifupi 7800, gulu lalikulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Ku Savoie, France, Alpine Ampelography Center amafufuza mitundu yosowa. Ili ndi nazale yake, imapanga micro-vinification's ndipo imakhala ndi msonkhano wapachaka. Wine Mosaic, yoyambitsidwa ndi Lean-Luc Etievent ndi Arnaud Daphy, imalimbikitsa kuteteza mitundu yoyambirira ya mphesa ku Mediterranean.

“Osunga mipesa” ambiri amakhulupirira kuti kusintha kwa nyengo kudzafuna kuti mphesa zibzalidwe m’tsogolo, zomwe zimapsa msanga, zimatenthedwa ndi dzuwa mosavuta kapena zimapatsa acidity yabwino kapena mawonekedwe a tannic kuposa mitundu yodziwika bwino. Mitundu yakale ikutsitsidwa chifukwa chosapanga bwino ndipo mitundu yodziwika bwino ili pachiwopsezo cha kusintha kwa nyengo. Dziko la vinyo likuyesera kukonzekera kusintha ndikutsitsimutsa mitundu yakale kuti ipeze mayankho atsopano.

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

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Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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