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Madzi Padziko Lapansi: Kodi Anachokeradi Fumbi Lamumlengalenga?

Dothi la Space limabweretsa madzi padziko lapansi
Written by Linda S. Hohnholz

Gulu la asayansi lapadziko lonse lapansi lingakhale kuti linathetsa chinsinsi chachikulu chokhudza chiyambi cha madzi pa Dziko Lapansi, ataulula umboni watsopano wokhutiritsa wosonyeza munthu yemwe sangayembekezere - Dzuwa.

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Mu pepala latsopano lofalitsidwa lero mu magazini Nature Astronomy, gulu la ofufuza ochokera ku UK, Australia ndi America akufotokoza momwe kusanthula kwatsopano kwa asteroid yakale kumasonyeza kuti fumbi lakunja linanyamula madzi kudziko lapansi pamene dziko lapansi linapangidwira.

Madzi mumbewu amapangidwa ndi nyengo nyengo, njira yomwe tinthu tating'onoting'ono tochokera ku Dzuwa timadziwika kuti mphepo yadzuwa, tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timatulutsa timadzi tomwe timatulutsa timadzi tambiri timene timatulutsa madzi. 

Kupezaku kutha kuyankha funso lomwe lakhalapo kwanthawi yayitali loti Dziko Lapansi lokhala ndi madzi modabwitsa linapeza nyanja zamchere zomwe zimaphimba 70 peresenti ya pamwamba pake - kuposa mapulaneti ena aliwonse amiyala mu Dzuwa lathu. Zingathandizenso mautumiki apamlengalenga amtsogolo kupeza magwero a madzi pamayiko opanda mpweya.

Kwa zaka zambiri, akatswiri a sayansi ya mapulaneti akhala akudabwa kuti dziko lapansi linachokera kuti? Nthanthi imodzi imasonyeza kuti mtundu umodzi wa thanthwe lonyamulira madzi lotchedwa C-type asteroids ukanabweretsa madzi ku dziko m’magawo omalizira a kupangidwa kwake zaka mabiliyoni 4.6 zapitazo.  

Kuti ayese chiphunzitsochi, asayansi adasanthula kale zala za isotopic zamitundu ya C-type asteroids yomwe yagwera pa Dziko Lapansi ngati meteorite ya carbonaceous chondrite meteorite. Ngati chiŵerengero cha hydrogen ndi deuterium m’madzi a meteorite chikufanana ndi cha madzi a padziko lapansi, asayansi akanatha kunena kuti mwina meteorite amtundu wa C ndiwo ankachokera.

Zotsatira zake sizinali zomveka bwino. Ngakhale kuti zala za meteorite zolemera kwambiri za meteorite za deuterium/hydrogen zidafananadi ndi madzi a padziko lapansi, ambiri sanatero. Pafupifupi, zala zamadzimadzi za meteoritezi sizinagwirizane ndi madzi omwe amapezeka muchovala chapadziko lapansi ndi nyanja. M'malo mwake, Dziko Lapansi lili ndi chala chosiyana, chopepuka pang'ono cha isotopic. 

Mwa kuyankhula kwina, pamene madzi ena a Dziko lapansi ayenera kuti anachokera ku meteorite yamtundu wa C, dziko lopangidwa liyenera kuti linalandira madzi kuchokera ku gwero limodzi la kuwala kwa isotopically lomwe linayambira kwinakwake mu Solar System. 

Gulu lotsogozedwa ndi University of Glasgow linagwiritsa ntchito njira yowunikira kwambiri yotchedwa atom probe tomography kuti ifufuze zitsanzo kuchokera kumtundu wina wa mwala wa mlengalenga wotchedwa S-type asteroid, yomwe imazungulira pafupi ndi dzuwa kuposa mitundu ya C. Zitsanzo zomwe adasanthula zidachokera ku asteroid yotchedwa Itokawa, yomwe idatengedwa ndi kafukufuku waku Japan Hayabusa ndikubwerera ku Earth mu 2010.

Atomu probe tomography inathandiza gululo kuyeza kapangidwe ka atomu ya njerezo atomu imodzi pa nthawi ndi kuzindikira mamolekyu amadzi. Zomwe anapeza zikuwonetsa kuti madzi ochuluka amapangidwa pansi pa fumbi la Itokawa chifukwa cha nyengo. 

Dongosolo loyambirira la dzuŵa linali malo afumbi kwambiri, kumapereka mpata wochuluka wa madzi opangidwa pansi pa tinthu tating’ono ta fumbi la m’mlengalenga. Fumbi lodzaza ndi madzi ili, ofufuzawo akuganiza, likanagwa mvula pa Dziko Lapansi loyambirira limodzi ndi ma asteroids amtundu wa C ngati gawo loperekera nyanja zapadziko lapansi.

Dr Luke Daly, wa pa Yunivesite ya Glasgow's School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, ndiye wolemba wamkulu wa pepalali. Dr Daly anati: “Mphepo za dzuŵa ndi mitsinje yambiri ya ma hydrogen ndi ma ion a helium omwe amayenda mosalekeza kuchokera ku Dzuwa kupita kumlengalenga. Ma ayoni a haidrojeniwo akafika pamalo opanda mpweya ngati thambo lamlengalenga kapena fumbi la m’mlengalenga, amaloŵa ma nanometer oŵerengeka pansi pa nthaka, kumene angayambukire kapangidwe kake ka thanthwe. M'kupita kwa nthawi, mphamvu ya 'space weathering' ya ma hydrogen ions imatha kutulutsa maatomu okwanira a oxygen kuchokera ku zinthu zomwe zili mu thanthwe kuti apange H.2O - madzi - otsekeredwa mkati mwa mchere pa asteroid.

"Chochititsa chidwi n'chakuti, madzi opangidwa ndi mphepo ya dzuwawa amapangidwa ndi mapulaneti oyambirira a dzuwa ndi owala kwambiri. Zimenezo zikusonyeza mwamphamvu kuti fumbi losalala bwino, lowombedwa ndi mphepo ya dzuŵa ndi kukokeredwa m’dziko limene linapangidwa zaka mabiliyoni ambiri zapitazo, likhoza kukhala gwero la nkhokwe ya madzi a pulanetiyo.”

Prof. Phil Bland, pulofesa wodziwika bwino wa John Curtin pa Sukulu ya Earth and Planetary Sciences ku Curtin University komanso wolemba nawo pepalali adati "Atom probe tomography imatipangitsa kuyang'ana mwatsatanetsatane mkati mwa ma nanometer 50 kapena kupitilira apo. ya fumbi pa Itokawa, yomwe imazungulira dzuwa m'miyezi 18. Zinatithandiza kuona kuti kachidutswa kakang’ono kameneka kanali ndi madzi okwanira moti tikati titalikepo, akanakhala pafupifupi malita 20 pa kiyubikimita iliyonse ya mwala.”

Pulofesa Michelle Thompson wa m’dipatimenti ya Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences pa yunivesite ya Purdue anawonjezera kuti: “Ndikuyezera kotere kumene sikukanatheka popanda luso lodabwitsali. Zimatipatsa kuzindikira modabwitsa momwe tinthu tating'onoting'ono toyandama mumlengalenga tingatithandizire kulinganiza mabuku okhudzana ndi madzi a Dziko Lapansi, ndi kutipatsanso zidziwitso zatsopano zothandizira kuthetsa chinsinsi cha komwe adachokera.

Ofufuzawa adasamala kwambiri kuti atsimikizire kuti zotsatira za kuyesedwa kwawo zinali zolondola, kuchita zoyesera zina ndi magwero ena kuti atsimikizire zotsatira zawo.

Dr Daly anawonjezera kuti: "Dongosolo la atomu lofufuza za atomu ku Curtin University ndi lapamwamba kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, koma silinagwiritsidwepo ntchito pofufuza za haidrojeni yomwe tinali kupanga pano. Tinkafuna kutsimikizira kuti zotsatira zomwe tikuwona zinali zolondola. Ndinapereka zotsatira zathu zoyambirira pamsonkhano wa Lunar ndi Planetary Science mu 2018, ndipo ndinafunsa ngati anzathu omwe analipo angatithandize kutsimikizira zomwe tapeza ndi zitsanzo zawo. Chotisangalatsa, anzathu a NASA Johnson Space Center ndi University of Hawai'i ku Mānoa, Purdue, Virginia ndi Northern Arizona Universities, Idaho ndi Sandia national laboratories onse apereka thandizo. Anatipatsa zitsanzo za mchere wofanana ndi helium ndi deuterium m'malo mwa haidrojeni, ndipo kuchokera ku zotsatira za kafukufuku wa atomu za zinthuzo zinadziwika mwamsanga kuti zomwe tinkawona ku Itokawa zinali zochokera kunja.

"Anzathu omwe adapereka chithandizo pa kafukufukuyu alidi gulu lamaloto la nyengo yamlengalenga, motero ndife okondwa kwambiri ndi umboni womwe tasonkhanitsa. Zingatsegule chitseko cha kumvetsetsa bwino kwambiri momwe Dzuwa loyambirira linkawonekera ndi mmene Dziko Lapansi ndi nyanja zake zinapangidwira.”

Pulofesa John Bradley, wa pa yunivesite ya Hawai'i ku Mānoa, Honolulu, yemwe ndi wolemba mnzake wa pepalali, anawonjezera kuti: Posachedwapa zaka khumi zapitazo, lingaliro lakuti kuwala kwa dzuwa kuli kogwirizana ndi chiyambi cha madzi mu dongosolo la dzuwa. , zomwe sizikugwirizana kwambiri ndi nyanja zapadziko lapansi, zikanakhala zokayikira. Posonyeza kwa nthawi yoyamba kuti madzi amapangidwa mu-situ Pamwamba pa asteroid, kafukufuku wathu amamanga pa umboni wochuluka wosonyeza kuti kugwirizana kwa mphepo yadzuwa ndi njere za fumbi lodzaza ndi okosijeni kumatulutsadi madzi. 

“Popeza kuti fumbi lomwe linali lochuluka mu nebula ya dzuŵa lisanayambike kuchulukira kwa mapulaneti linali lounikira mosapeŵeka, madzi opangidwa ndi kachitidwe kameneka ndi ogwirizana mwachindunji ndi mmene madzi anayambira m’dongosolo la mapulaneti ndipo mwinanso mmene madzi a m’nyanja zapadziko lapansi anachokera.”

Kuyerekezera kwawo ndi kuchuluka kwa madzi omwe angakhalepo m'malo ozungulira mlengalenga kumasonyezanso njira yomwe akatswiri ofufuza zakuthambo angapangire madzi ngakhale mapulaneti ooneka ngati ouma kwambiri. 

Pulofesa Hope Ishii wa payunivesite ya Hawai’i ku Mānoa anati: “Limodzi mwavuto lofufuza za m’mlengalenga la anthu m’tsogolo n’lakuti openda zakuthambo angapeze madzi okwanira kuti akhalebe ndi moyo ndi kukwaniritsa ntchito zawo popanda kuwanyamula paulendo wawo. . 

"Tikuganiza kuti ndizomveka kuganiza kuti nyengo yomweyi yomwe idapanga madzi pa Itokawa ikhala ikuchitika pamlingo wina kapena wina pamaiko ambiri opanda mpweya monga Mwezi kapena asteroid Vesta. Izi zingatanthauze kuti akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakuthambo atha kukonza madzi atsopano kuchokera ku fumbi lomwe lili padziko lapansi. N’zosangalatsa kuganiza kuti njira zimene zinapanga mapulaneti zingathandize kuti anthu akhale ndi moyo pamene tikufika kutali ndi Dziko Lapansi.” 

Dr Daly anawonjezera kuti: "Pulojekiti ya NASA ya Artemis ikukonzekera kukhazikitsa maziko okhazikika pa Mwezi. Ngati malo a mwezi ali ndi malo osungira madzi ofanana ndi mphepo yadzuwa kafukufukuyu adavumbulutsa pa Itokawa, ikanayimira gwero lalikulu komanso lamtengo wapatali lothandizira kukwaniritsa cholinga chimenecho. "

Pepala la gululi, lotchedwa 'Solar Wind Contribution's to the Earth's Oceans', lasindikizidwa mu Nature Astronomy. 

Ofufuza ochokera ku yunivesite ya Glasgow, University of Curtin, University of Sydney, University of Oxford, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Natural History Museum, Idha National Laboratory, Lockheed Martin, Sandia National Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, University of Virginia, Northern Arizona University ndi Purdue University onse adathandizira papepala. 

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Ponena za wolemba

Linda S. Hohnholz

Linda Hohnholz wakhala mkonzi wamkulu wa eTurboNews kwa zaka zambiri.
Amakonda kulemba ndikusamala zambiri.
Amayang'aniranso pazinthu zonse zoyambirira komanso zofalitsa.

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