Dinani apa kuti muwonetse zikwangwani ZANU patsamba lino ndikulipira kuti mupambane

ndege Kuswa Nkhani Zoyenda Dziko | Chigawo Nkhani Za Boma Nkhani Saudi Arabia thiransipoti Trending

Tsogolo Latsopano la Global Aviation Saudi Arabia Style

Future Aviation Forum

Saudi Arabia popanda funso lililonse idatha kutsogolera pazaulendo wapadziko lonse lapansi komanso zokopa alendo panthawi yamavuto a COVID. Ufumuwo unakhala likulu la chitukuko cha zokopa alendo. Monga zikuyembekezeredwa, ichi chinali chiyambi chabe cha dziko lapansi lomwe likuchitira umboni kusintha utsogoleri wapadziko lonse ku Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia ili ndi ndalama, ndipo izi zikuwoneka kuti ndizofunikira. Pamene a dziko likufunika kupulumutsidwa panthawi ya mliri, Saudi Arabia idayankha mafoni.

Dziko lomwe lingathe kuyika mabiliyoni ambiri pakukulitsa malonda ake oyendayenda, zokopa alendo ndi ndege, ndipo liri okonzeka kuyika ndalama zake pazadziko lonse lapansi mu gawoli lili ndi zabwino zonse komanso kuthekera kokhala wamphamvu padziko lonse lapansi pantchito iyi.

Turkey Airlines, Emirates, Etihad, ndi Qatar Airways awonetsa kale dziko lapansi zomwe zingachitike posintha malo oyendetsa ndege kupita ku Turkey, UAE ndi Qatar. Ndi chimphona chonga ngati Ufumu wa Saudi Arabia, zitha kukhala nthawi yochepa kuti ndege zapa ndege kuphatikiza Emirates ziwone mpikisano waukulu.

Masiku ano Saudi Arabia idadzikankhira pampando wakutsogolo kuti ipange tsogolo la ndege.

Today Saudi Arabia General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA) yalengeza ndondomeko ya Harmonizing Air Travel, ndondomeko yomwe idzapangitse kuyenda kwa mayiko kukhala kosavuta, kosavuta komanso kosangalatsa pochotsa chisokonezo pa zofunikira za maulendo zomwe zikulepheretsa anthu mamiliyoni ambiri kusungitsa ndege.

Ndondomekoyi idavumbulutsidwa pamwambo wotsegulira wa Kingdom Future Aviation Forum ndipo idzaperekedwa mwalamulo ku 41.st ICAO General Assembly pambuyo pake mu 2022.

Adapangidwa mogwirizana ndi UN's IInternational Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), ndondomeko yomwe yaperekedwayi idzathetsa chisokonezo cha maulendo apadziko lonse kwa okwera, onyamula katundu ndi maboma popanga njira imodzi, yomveka bwino, yamakono, yomwe ikufotokoza zofunikira kuti alowe m'mayiko onse omwe akugwira nawo ntchito.

Kodi Saudi Arabia ikulengeza chiyani lero?

  1. Saudi Arabia ikuyambitsa ndondomeko yapadziko lonse lapansi monga ndondomeko ya White Paper, yomwe cholinga chake ndi
    kupangitsa kuti ulendo ukhale wosavuta komanso wosavuta kwa okwera, makamaka panthawi
    ngozi zadzidzidzi
  2. White Paper ikufuna kukhazikitsidwa kwa chimango chapadziko lonse lapansi kuti chigwirizane
    ndondomeko zazaumoyo, ndi cholinga chochepetsa kukhudzika kwa okwera
    kutayika kwa magalimoto panthawi yazadzidzi zadzidzidzi powonetsetsa kuti zikuyenda bwino
    dongosolo.
  3. White Paper ndi yoyamba yamtundu wake yomwe imayika okwera pakatikati pa
    Cholinga cha ndondomeko ya ndege
  4. White Paper ili ndi zipilala zinayi zazikuluzikulu: 1) njira yoperekera malipoti yogwirizana kwa onse
    mayiko, 2) njira zoyankhulirana za mayiko ndi ena okhudzidwa, 3) atsopano
    Ulamuliro ndi njira zogwirizanitsa ndi 4) njira zotsatirira.

Choyamba chamtundu wake + Kuyika wokwera patsogolo:

- palibe ndondomeko ina ya ndege yomwe ikufuna kuyika okwera ndege pakati pa zolinga zake. Dongosolo losavuta, lothandiza kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi lidzalimbikitsa kukhulupirirana ndi kulimba mtima

Kutchuka:

- ndondomekoyi ikufuna kulimbikitsa mgwirizano pakati pa anthu ogwira nawo ntchito m'madera onse oyendetsa ndege m'njira zomwe sizinawonekerepo

Zamtsogolo :

- Ndondomekoyi imachokera ku zovuta zomwe taziwona ndi COVID. Koma si ndondomeko ya COVID. Ndi lamulo lopangidwa kuti lithandizire kulimba mtima pakuyankha kwa ndege padziko lonse lapansi pamavuto aliwonse azaumoyo omwe angachitike m'tsogolomu komanso kufewetsa njira zokhudzana ndi thanzi la okwera.

Nkhani Yalamulo:


• Zowopsa zakunja zakhudza kwambiri ntchito zamayendedwe apandege komanso kukula kwachuma. Covid-19 yakhudza kwambiri kuchuluka kwa magalimoto ndi maulendo apaulendo padziko lonse lapansi ndipo, chifukwa chake, kuchuluka kwa anthu akuyembekezeredwa kuti abwerere ku 2019 isanafike 2024, ndipo zoyendetsa ndege zimakhalabe pachiwopsezo cha zovuta zina zamtsogolo zapadziko lonse lapansi.

Kapangidwe ka Ndondomeko:


• Dongosololi likuphatikizapo kukhazikitsidwa kwa mizati inayi yokonzedwa kuti ipititse patsogolo
kuyankha kwapadziko lonse pazadzidzi zamtsogolo zamtsogolo pamayendedwe apamlengalenga:
1) dongosolo logwirizana la malipoti a mayiko onse
2) njira zoyankhulirana za mayiko ndi ena okhudzidwa
3) Ulamuliro watsopano ndi njira zogwirizanitsa
4) njira zotsatirira.

Chiyerekezo cha mfundo:


• Ndondomeko ya ndondomekoyi idzathandiza kuchepetsa kukula kwa magalimoto otayika chifukwa cha vuto la thanzi polola mayiko kuti azitha kusinthana mofulumira zokhudzana ndi zochitika zawo zomwe zikupita patsogolo komanso pogwiritsa ntchito lingaliro la "kuthawa kotetezeka".
• Kuonjezera apo, zithandiza kuonjezera liwiro la kuchira kwa okwera anthu potsatira kukhazikitsidwa ndi kutulutsa koyenera kwamankhwala (monga katemera).
• Kutengera ndi kuwunika komwe kunachitika mu Marichi 2020 mpaka Disembala 2021, mfundo zomwe zikuyembekezeka kudzetsa phindu pazachuma (ukadakhazikitsidwa, muzochitika zoyambira), zidayerekezedwa pafupifupi USD 1.1 thililiyoni.

Kugwirizana ndi ntchito zapadziko lonse lapansi


• Cholinga cha ndondomeko ya ndondomekoyi sikumanga zipangizo ndi zipilala za zipilala zinayi zomwe zakonzedwa kuyambira pachiyambi, koma kugwira ntchito limodzi ndi otsogolera ndege zapadziko lonse lapansi.
ogwira nawo ntchito kuti apititse patsogolo ntchito zam'mbuyomu komanso zamakono za CAPSCA, ICAO, membala wake
States, ndi mabungwe achigawo
• Popereka malingaliro ndi kutsogolera ntchito zapadziko lonse lapansi kuti akhazikitse ndondomeko yotereyi kuti igwirizane ndi zofunikira zaumoyo komanso kuyenda mosavuta kwa okwera, ndondomeko yoyera ya ndondomekoyi ikuwonetseratu kudzipereka kwa Ufumu pothandizira ntchito zapadziko lonse zopititsa patsogolo kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka anthu. zomwe zidachitika ku ICAO High-Level Conference pa Covid-19.

Kafukufuku wapadziko lonse lapansi:

USA:
• Ambiri (56%) aku America akuti maboma sanagwire ntchito limodzi kuti athandizire kuyenda pa nthawi ya mliri.
• Gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu (36%) la anthu aku America akuganiza kuti makampani oyendetsa ndege ndi okonzeka kuthana ndi vuto lina lazaumoyo.
• M'modzi mwa 1 (3%) aku America akuti chisokonezo pazaumoyo chidzawalepheretsa
kusungitsa ulendo mu 2022


GCC:
• Anthu oposera awiri pa atatu aliwonse (68%) a ku Gulf anasankha kusayenda mu 2021 chifukwa cha zofunikira zokhudzana ndi Covid.
• Pafupifupi theka (47%) la anthu ku Gulf ati chisokonezo pazaumoyo chidzawalepheretsa kuyenda mu 2022.

Italiya:
• Anthu ambiri ku Italy (61%) akuti anasankha kusayenda mu 2021 chifukwa chokhudzana ndi Covid.
zofunika kuyenda
• Anthu 40 pa XNUMX aliwonse ku Italy ati kusokoneza zofunikira pazaumoyo kudzawalepheretsa kuyenda chaka chino


UK:
• Awiri mwa atatu (65%) a Brits adayimitsa maulendo mu 2021 chifukwa cha zofunikira zokhudzana ndi Covid
• Anthu ambiri ku UK (70%) akuti mayiko sanagwire ntchito limodzi kuti zikhale zosavuta kuti anthu aziyenda pakadutsa mliriwu.
• Anthu opitilira magawo awiri pa atatu aliwonse ku UK akuti makampani oyendetsa ndege sanakonzekere bwino mavuto ena azaumoyo.
• Anthu 40 pa XNUMX aliwonse ku UK ati kusokoneza zofunikira pazaumoyo kudzawalepheretsa kuyenda chaka chino.

Chifukwa chiyani Saudi Arabia yathandizira pepala loyerali?


• Saudi Arabia, pamodzi ndi maiko ena padziko lonse lapansi, idakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi vuto la COVID. Mwayi ulipo kuti Ufumu utsogolere ndondomeko yomwe imakhazikitsa dongosolo lochepetsera kusokonezeka komwe kumabwera chifukwa cha zovuta monga COVID mtsogolo.
• Saudi Arabia yayamba kale ntchito zotsogola m'derali kuchokera ku ntchito yothandiza
malingaliro, kudzera mu ntchito yophatikiza pulogalamu ya Tawakkulna ndi maulendo apadziko lonse a IATA
kupita. Momwemo, zomwe zidzachitike zidzawoneka zothandiza pakukhazikitsa ndondomekoyi.

Kodi Saudi Arabia ipeza chiyani potsogolera ntchitoyi?


• Uwu ndi mwayi wabwino kwambiri wosonyeza mphamvu za Ufumu monga a
wotsogolera kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka anthu
mayiko (ndi makamaka okwera) padziko lonse lapansi
• Ntchitoyi ingathandize kukhazikitsa maziko kuti Saudi Arabia ikhale yogwira ntchito komanso yovomerezeka
zomwe zikuthandizira kutsata ndondomeko ya ndege m'zaka zikubwerazi.

Kodi Saudi Arabia ikuchita chiyani mosiyana ndi mabungwe ena apadziko lonse lapansi ndi mayiko
gwirizanitsani maulendo apadziko lonse/Kodi mfundo ya Harmonizing Air Travel ikusiyana bwanji ndi G20
zokambirana?


• Ndikofunikira kumveketsa bwino kuti Ufumu sukuyesera kukonzanso gudumu ndi ndondomekoyi. Anthu ambiri otsogola pazandege monga ICAO, CAPSCA ndi IATA atsogolera ntchito yomwe ili yogwirizana kwambiri ndi mfundoyi.
• Lingaliro la ndondomekoyi ndi lapadera poyesa kugwirizanitsa ntchito zomwe mayiko mamembala ndi mabungwe akugwira kale ntchito mu ndondomeko yogwirizana, yomwe imalimbikitsa mgwirizano.
• Saudi Arabia ikuwona ndikulandila ntchito zaposachedwa zomwe zachitika ndi 2022 G20
Health Working Group (HWG) ikukhudzana ndi kugwirizanitsa ndondomeko zaumoyo padziko lonse kuti zikhale zotetezeka
maulendo apadziko lonse lapansi. Mwayi ulipo kuti a HWG agwire ntchito ndi gulu lathu lamalamulo kuti athandizire kuyambitsa ndi kukhazikitsa malingaliro ofunikira mu dongosolo lathu.

Kodi ndondomeko yotani pambuyo pa Future Aviation Forum kuti mfundoyi ivomerezedwe?


• Cholinga choyamba ndikukweza kuwonekera kwa chikalata choyera cha ndondomeko pakati pa mayiko omwe ali mamembala ku Future Aviation Forum. Ufumu ukuyembekeza kuti mayiko omwe ali mamembala awona ndondomekoyi moyenera, ndikulolera kutithandiza pokonza ndondomekoyi.
• Gulu la ndondomeko lidzapitiriza kulimbikitsa ntchito zomwe zachitika kale ndipo lidzakhala lothokoza kulandira ndemanga, ndemanga, ndi zodzudzula zochokera ku mayiko omwe ali mamembala okhudzana ndi White Paper kuti athandize kupititsa patsogolo ubwino ndi kutheka.
• Pambuyo pa Msonkhanowu, gululi likufuna kuyesetsa kukonza Paper Working Paper, mogwirizana ndi ICAO, akuluakulu ena okhudzidwa ndi ndege, ndi mayiko omwe ali mamembala.
• Cholinga chachikulu ndi chakuti Paper Yogwira Ntchito ikambirane (ndi kuvomerezedwa) ku ICAO
General Assembly kumapeto kwa chaka chino

Kodi pali zolepheretsa kulera ana?


• Ili ndi lingaliro lofuna kutsata ndondomeko yomwe idzafunikire kugula ndi mgwirizano pakati pa anthu osiyanasiyana omwe ali nawo mkati ndi kunja kwa gawo la ndege, monga mabungwe a zaumoyo (WHO) ndi zokopa alendo (UNWTOmagawo
• Zotsatira zake, chotchinga chovuta kwambiri pa ndondomekoyi chidzakhala kukwaniritsa mgwirizano pa
ndondomeko ndi kudzipereka kuchokera ku mayiko onse mamembala
• Mwachidziwitso chothandiza, kulera mwana kungathe kuchitika pang'onopang'ono
mgwirizano ndi States Member malinga ndi kuthekera kwawo kusintha chimango.

Nanga bwanji ngati mayiko ena akukana kutenga nawo mbali pa ntchitoyi?


• Iyi ndi mfundo yofuna kugulira ndi kugwirizana pakati pa anthu osiyanasiyana omwe ali ndi udindo mkati ndi kunja kwa gulu la ndege.
• Cholepheretsa chovuta kwambiri pa ndondomekoyi chidzakhala kukwaniritsa mgwirizano pa ndondomekoyi ndi
kudzipereka kuchokera kumayiko onse omwe ali mamembala kuti akwaniritse.
• Pambuyo pa mgwirizano waukulu ndi akatswiri oyendetsa ndege, sitepe yotsatira mu
Kupanga mfundo ndi kukambirana mokulirapo ndi mayiko ena omwe ali mamembala ndi mabungwe akuluakulu apadziko lonse lapansi komwe kumaphatikizapo kumvetsera nkhawa zilizonse zomwe zingabuke ndikupereka njira zothetsera kuyenda kosavuta kwa apaulendo.
• Kukhazikitsa kutha kuchitika pang'onopang'ono, komanso mwakufuna kwawo
zinthu zokangana.

Kuwonetsetsa kuti ndondomeko ikuyenda bwino


• Ndondomekoyi inalembedwa potsatira kukambirana kwakukulu ndi akatswiri okhudza za
ndege, kotero tikudziwa kuti ndondomekoyi imakhudza zinthu zofunika kwambiri.
• Gululi lipitiliza kugwira ntchito kuti ndondomekoyi ikwaniritsidwe.
• Kuphatikizika ndi gawo lalikulu pakupanga mfundo. Chifukwa chake, kuwonetsetsa kukambirana kokwanira ndi mayiko ena omwe ali mamembala kuchokera ku ICAO kudzakhala gawo lofunikira.
• Kulera ana onse kudzakhala kofunika kwambiri kuti lamuloli lichite bwino.

Kodi lingaliro la Harmonizing Air Travel ndi losiyana bwanji ndi nsanja zina?


• Tsamba loyera la ndondomeko ya Harmonizing Air Travel limapereka ndondomeko ndi ndondomeko zomwe zidzapangidwe malinga ndi kuyanjanitsa (komanso kugula) kwa mabungwe onse akuluakulu ovomerezeka oyendetsa ndege, osati ochepa chabe.
• Deta ndi zambiri zokhudzana ndi zofunikira pazaumoyo paulendo ndi ziwerengero zidzaperekedwa
molunjika ndi akuluakulu aboma a zaumoyo m'mayiko onse omwe ali mamembala ndipo motero
chimangocho chidzaperekedwa ndi chidziwitso chamakono komanso cholondola chomwe chidzagawidwa ndi onse ochita masewera.

Ndi mayiko ati omwe angakhale oyenera kutenga nawo gawo mu mfundo za Harmonizing Air Travel?


• Mayiko onse omwe ali mamembala a ICAO angakhale oyenerera kutenga nawo mbali mu ndondomeko ya Harmonizing Air Travel.

Kodi mfundo ya Harmonizing Air Travel idzakhudza bwanji apaulendo, ndege ndi ma eyapoti?


• Zokhudza apaulendo - kuyenda kosasunthika kwambiri chifukwa chosavuta
zofikirika, zolondola komanso zamakono zofunika pazaumoyo kuti muyendeko
poyambira mpaka pofika. Mbali zazikuluzikulu ndi izi:
o Kutetezedwa kotetezedwa ndi chidziwitso kwa apaulendo ndi antchito
o Zosayembekezereka komanso zovutitsa paulendo
o Chochitika chamunthu
o Atha kupatsa okwera chitsimikizo kuti ayende pomwe akulowa, popanda zosayembekezereka
mavuto akafika pa eyapoti.
• Kukhudzidwa kwa ndege - kupeza mauthenga olunjika komanso olondola kuchokera kwa apaulendo komanso zofunikira zathanzi zaposachedwa kuchokera kwa akuluakulu azaumoyo m'mayiko omwe akupita, kuonetsetsa chitetezo chokulirapo kwa ogwira ntchito m'ndege m'ma eyapoti ndi ndege zomwe zili m'ndege
• Kukhudzidwa kwa ma eyapoti - njira zolongosoka komanso zolongosoka, zowongoleredwa zakumapeto-kumapeto, kusintha magwiridwe antchito kuti ndalama zogwirira ntchito zichepe, komanso kukwera kwapang'onopang'ono kwa okwera ndi kutuluka (kuchepa kwa nsonga ndi mathithi mu kuchuluka kwa anthu)

Ndani azipereka ndalama zothandizira ntchitoyi?


• Saudi Arabia yakhala ikutsogolera monga womanga ndondomeko yoyamba, kuphatikizapo
kukhazikitsidwa kwa pepala loyera la ndondomeko
• Ngati lingaliro liyenera kulandira gawo lokwanira kuchokera ku ma membala, liyenera kudziwa momwe boma loperekera, kulumikizana ndi ntchito zaukadaulo kuyenera kulandira ndalama mpaka kukhazikika.
• Chofunika kwambiri ndi chakuti thumba la ndalama liyenera kukhala ndi ulamuliro wamphamvu, kulamulira kolimba, komanso kuchita zinthu momveka bwino pa nkhani ya kaperekedwe ka ndalama. Komiti Yoyang'anira yopangidwa ndi Mamembala-Maboma omwe amapereka ndalama ikhoza kukhala ndi udindo woyang'anira thumba ili.
• Kukambilana kwina kuyenera kuchitika pakati pa mamembala a bungweli
Komiti Yoyang'anira kuti iwonetse momwe ntchitozo zidzakhalire
ndalama, ndi amene azidzapereka ndalama zamagulu enaake.

Kodi ndondomekoyi ikufuna kusintha zomwe zakhazikitsidwa kale? Mwachitsanzo, a
IATA Travel Pass.


➢ Ayi, sichifuna kulowetsa m'malo mwa njira, ndondomeko kapena chida chilichonse chotsogozedwa ndi dziko kapena makampani, kapena kudzikakamiza ku boma kapena bungwe lililonse lomwe likuyenera kukwaniritsa.
• Cholinga cha ndondomekoyi ndikuwonetsetsa kuti ntchito iliyonse yomwe ilipo pa dziko lonse kapena m'madera akhoza kumasuliridwa / kusinthidwa mosasunthika kukhala Harmonizing Air Travel framework kuti chidziwitso chofunikira pa umoyo chigawidwe molondola ndikugwirizanitsa ndi dziko lonse lapansi. Ndondomekoyi ikufuna kupititsa patsogolo izi.

Kodi WHO yatenga nawo mbali mu ndondomekoyi?


• Bungwe la WHO ndilofunika kwambiri pakuchita bwino kwa ndondomeko ya Harmonizing Air Travel
• Oyimilira ochokera ku WHO adadziwitsidwa za ndondomekoyi ndi zochitika zake
• Cholinga ndikupitiriza kugwira ntchito limodzi ndi WHO ndi mabungwe ena akuluakulu pambuyo pa Forum kulimbikitsa mgwirizano ndi mgwirizano malinga ndi ndondomekoyi.
kukhazikitsa.

Kodi mfundo ya Harmonizing Air Travel ikhudza bwanji maboma?


• Zithandiza maboma kuti azilankhulana bwino
zomwe malamulo awo ali, ndi kuwonekera kowonjezereka ndi ntchito yochepa.
• Pochotsa kusatsimikizika kwa ma equation kwa apaulendo, zithandiza maboma kusunga ndikuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa maulendo awo apaulendo.

Kodi izi ndi za Covid basi? Kodi izi sizinathe?


Ayi, lamuloli silikunena za Covid. Ndizosavuta, chifukwa cha kusokonezeka kwa ziwiri zapitazi
zaka, kuganiza kuti ndondomekoyi ikuyankha mwachindunji ku Covid. Komabe, ndondomekoyi ikufuna kupereka yankho lomwe limalimbikitsa kuyenda kosavuta, kosavuta komanso kosangalatsa kwa zaka zambiri zamtsogolo
• Ndondomekoyi ilimbikitsa kulimba mtima kwamakampani athu kuzinthu zomwe zidzachitike m'tsogolo, kutithandiza kupirira komanso kuthana ndi zovuta zamtsogolo.

Munafika bwanji pa 1.1 thililiyoni?


• Gulu lathu lidachita kafukufuku woyambirira koma watsatanetsatane wazachuma molunjika pa Marichi 2020 mpaka Disembala 2021, pomwe ziletso za COVID zinali zovuta kwambiri.
• Kuwunika kwathu kunawonetsa kuti ngati ndondomekoyi idakhazikitsidwa, zopindulitsa zomwe zikuyembekezeka
kukhudzika kwachuma, pazochitika zoyambira, kudafikira pafupifupi USD 1.1
quintillion

Kodi mukuyembekeza kuti lamulo latsopanoli lipangitsa kuti pakhale maulendo ambiri?


• Ndondomekoyi ikufuna kupangitsa kuti pakhale kulimba mtima m'dongosolo lapano, kuti apereke ulendo wosavuta, wosavuta komanso wosangalatsa kwa apaulendo.
• Pokhala ndi nyumba yoteroyo, apaulendo omwe mwina adalepheretsedwa kuyenda chifukwa chosokoneza, ziletso zikanatheka kuyenda.
• Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti ndondomekoyi ikufuna kupanga ndondomeko ya nthawi "zabwino" ndi nthawi zadzidzidzi. Zidzathandiza kuyenda kosavuta pansi pa "zabwinobwino", kuthandizira kuthekera kwaulendo wochulukirapo. Muzochitika zadzidzidzi zaumoyo, kupirira komwe kumapangidwa ndi ndondomekoyi kudzachepetsa kutayika kwakukulu monga momwe tawonera

Kodi ndondomeko yatsopanoyi idzaperekanso zofunika paulendo kwa ana?


• Inde, ndondomekoyi idzakhudza zoyendera za onse apaulendo

Nkhani Zogwirizana

Ponena za wolemba

Wachinyamata T Steinmetz

Juergen Thomas Steinmetz wakhala akugwirabe ntchito zapaulendo komanso zokopa alendo kuyambira ali wachinyamata ku Germany (1977).
Iye adayambitsa eTurboNews mu 1999 ngati nkhani yoyamba yapaintaneti yantchito zapaulendo padziko lonse lapansi.

Siyani Comment

Gawani ku...