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Bordeaux ndi Vinyo Wake Kusintha… Pang'onopang'ono

Chithunzi mwachilolezo cha E.Garely

Mwambo, miyambo, miyambo… Kwa zaka zambiri, opanga vinyo ku Bordeaux akhala akungokhalira kutsata miyambo ndi zizolowezi zomwe zidayamba kalekale. Ku France, mbiri ya vinyo idakhazikitsidwa pachikhalidwe (mwachitsanzo, kudziwa, terroir, appellation d'origine controlee/AOC - dzina lotetezedwa). "Zinali kukhulupirira" kuti ogula amagula vinyo wa ku France potengera mbiri yake ndipo chifukwa chake malamulo okhwima pa viticulture ndi winemaking adakhazikitsidwa. Mwa “mwambo,” malonda a vinyo a ku Bordeaux anali ogwirizana kwambiri pakati pa olima vinyo (ma estates), amalonda (ogulitsa), ndi amalonda a vinyo (ochita malonda) omwe amagulitsa vinyo m'malo mwa olima.

Kukula kwa Msika

Msika wa Bordeaux umaphatikizapo alimi pafupifupi 7000, ogulitsa vinyo 80, ndi ogulitsa vinyo 300. Wogulitsa vinyo amathandizira pamitengo yamitengo ya chateau ndipo amapeza gawo la malondawo (awiri peresenti ku Bordeaux). Ntchito za ogulitsa vinyo zimayendetsedwa ndikulamulidwa ndi Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Kusintha Osalandiridwa

Ngakhale kuti mphepo yamkuntho inachepetsa zina mwa zotsatira za kutentha kwa dziko Kuyambira mu 2010 kusintha kwa nyengo kwadziwika ndi opanga vinyo ku Bordeaux ndipo nkhani za nyengozi sizinganyalanyazidwenso makamaka pamene kusintha kwa kutentha kumayenderana ndi kusinthasintha kwamphamvu kuyambira mvula nthawi yokolola. chisanu, namondwe wa matalala ndi nyengo yotentha…kusadziwa sikulinso kosangalatsa.

Kuyankha Mwachidwi

Pochitapo kanthu mu Januware 2021, utsogoleri wa Bordeaux udavomereza kukhazikitsa mitundu inayi yatsopano yofiira: Arinarnoa, Castets, Marselan ndi Touriga Nacional kuphatikiza azungu awiri, Alvarinho ndi Lilorila mphesa kuti zibzalidwe. ku Bordeaux ndi mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito mpaka 10 peresenti ya mitundu iyi mukuphatikiza. Mphesa izi zavomerezedwa chifukwa zimacha mochedwa ndipo zimatha kuthana ndi kupsinjika kwa hydric komwe kumalepheretsa kumera, kupangitsa kusintha kwamitundu, kufota, kuchulukira kwa shuga kapena kutsika kwa zokolola panthawi ya kutentha. Zosakaniza za Bordeaux zingaphatikizepo Merlot (66 peresenti ya minda ya mpesa yobzalidwa), Cabernet Sauvignon (22.5 peresenti), Cabernet Franc (9.5 peresenti) ndi mitundu yocheperako (2 peresenti) ya Malbec, Petit Verdot ndi Carmenere.

Zamoyo zosiyanasiyana

Ndi diso lakukhazikika, nkhalango, nkhalango ndi mipanda zikubzalidwa mkati ndi kuzungulira minda ya mpesa. Pozindikira kuti mankhwala sanalemeretse nthaka, feteleza wapoizoni akuchotsedwa ndipo zamoyo zosiyanasiyana zakhala njira yofala kwambiri. Eni minda ya mpesa ndi mameneja akuwonjezera malo osungiramo minda, mitengo ndi nkhalango pamodzi ndi ming'oma ya njuchi kuti zithandize kufalitsa. Pofuna kubweretsanso moyo kunthaka, mbewu monga chimanga, clover ndi mbewu zina zikuyambitsidwa ndi cholinga choti minda ya mpesa ikhale yokhazikika komanso yokhazikika. Kukhazikika kwa mantra kumafikira kumalo osungiramo zinthu zakale ndipo njira zakhazikitsidwa zomwe zimagwira mpweya woipa ndikuwubwezeretsanso ndi oyang'anira minda ya mpesa kugulitsa potassium bicarbonate yomwe idapangidwa ndi CO2.

Mu 2020, ulimi wa organic udakwera ndi 43% mpaka 49,000 maekala pomwe mu 2019, 55% yazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito posamalira munda wamphesa zinali zoyenera kulimidwa ndi organic viticulture, poyerekeza ndi 30% mu 2009. Njira yokhazikika ndi njira yayitali, yovuta komanso yodula komanso ambiri a alimi a Bordeaux a 5500 sasintha kapena olemera monga eni minda ya mpesa / mameneja omwe adayambitsa machitidwe okhazikika.

Impact pa Merlot

Zotsatira za nyengo pa vinyo wofiira kuchokera ku mpesa zaposachedwa zikuwonekera mu mlingo wa mowa womwe wawonjezeka (kuyambira 2016) kuchokera ku chikhalidwe cha 13 -13.5 peresenti mowa ndi voliyumu (abv) mpaka 14-15 peresenti ndipo ikuwonekera kwambiri ku Merlot, kwambiri. Zomera zosiyanasiyana ku Bordeaux. Mipesa yaing'ono ya Merlot sinabzalidwe bwino ndi mizu yozama kwambiri kupangitsa kuti isathe kupirira kutentha kwachilimwe.

Kwa alimi a Merlot omwe akufuna kusintha mbewu zawo, ndalama zothandizira zilipo. M’minda ya mpesa yomwe ili ku Saint Emilion (Cabernet Franc) komanso ku Medoc and Graves (Cabernet Sauvignon) pali zotsatira zochepa kuchokera ku kusintha kwa nyengo (panthawiyi) kotero mitundu iyi ingagwiritsidwe ntchito m’malo mwa Merlot. Malbec ndi njira ina chifukwa imacha modalirika komanso mochedwa.

Chofiira, Choyera kapena Rose; Komabe kapena Fizz

Mavinyo ofiira a Bordeaux amakhalabe otchuka, ndipo vinyo woyera wouma wa Bordeaux akupeza mphamvu. US ndiye msika waukulu wa Bordeaux woyera wouma womwe umayimira mabotolo 5.2 miliyoni pakugulitsa pachaka. Msika wa ku America siwogulitsa mono-msika ndipo malonda akuwonjezeka kuchokera ku zosankha za tsiku ndi tsiku zotsika mtengo kupita ku kukula kwapadera kuchokera ku AOCs otchuka kuphatikizapo Medoc, Pauillac, St. Estephe, Saint Julien, Margaux), Graves ndi Satin-Emilion.

Zosangalatsa

Ngakhale kuti nyengo ingakhale ikupereka migraines a winemakers a Bordeaux, amavala nkhope zokondwa monga kutumiza kunja kwawonjezeka ndi 16 peresenti mu voliyumu ndi 37 peresenti yamtengo wapatali mpaka 2.3 biliyoni ya Euro, mbiri yakale. Omwe akutsogolera kukula ndi US ndi China. Ndi msonkho wa vinyo wa Trump wochotsedwa ndi Biden, mavinyo a Bordeaux omwe ali okongola pano akuchokera ku mpesa 18, 19 ndi 20. Kugulitsa kwa vinyo ku kukula kwa Bordeaux kumabwera chifukwa cha: kufunikira kwa vinyo watsopano; kutsegulidwanso kwa mipiringidzo ndi malo odyera; kuzindikirika kwakukulu kwaubwino ndi kukwanitsa kwa vinyo wa 2018 ndi 2019 komanso kuyimitsidwa kwamitengo ya 24 peresenti pavinyo waku France.

Zogulitsa zabwino zidakhudza ma AOC 65 osiyanasiyana a Bordeaux ndi mitundu yonse ya vinyo (wofiira, woyera wowuma, woduka, wotsekemera, komanso wonyezimira); Komabe, vinyo wofiira amakhalabe gulu lodziwika bwino pamsika waku US pomwe Bordeaux yoyera yowuma ikukhala yotchuka kwambiri. US ndiye msika woyamba wa Bordeaux yoyera yowuma, kuyimira mabotolo 1 miliyoni.

Makumi ndi asanu ndi limodzi mwa 7.6 aliwonse amavinyo opangidwa padziko lonse lapansi akuchokera ku France ndipo dzikolo ndilomwe limagula vinyo wambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Makampani opanga vinyo ali ndi udindo wopereka ma Euro 24 biliyoni ku chuma cha France kudzera kumayiko ena komanso amapereka ntchito kwa anthu opitilira theka la miliyoni. Makampani opanga vinyo amapititsa patsogolo ntchito zokopa alendo, pomwe alendo XNUMX miliyoni amabwera kumadera a vinyo ku France chaka chilichonse.

Uwu ndi mndandanda womwe umayang'ana kwambiri vinyo wa Bordeaux.

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© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

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Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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