Dinani apa kuti muwonetse zikwangwani ZANU patsamba lino ndikulipira kuti mupambane

Bungwe la African Tourism Board Kuswa Nkhani Zoyenda Dziko | Chigawo Culture Kupita Nkhani Tanzania

Chuma Chapadziko Lonse ku Tanzania Chofunika Kupulumutsidwa

Lerai Forest

Zonena za kuthamangitsidwa mokakamiza kwa madera amtundu wa Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) kumpoto kwa Tanzania ndi zabodza komanso zosocheretsa.

Bungwe la NCA limapereka chenjezo la kukhazikika kwa anthu m'malo otetezedwa ndi nyama zakuthengo popanda zitsogozo ndi kukakamiza.

Akuluakulu a boma la Tanzania achita zinthu mosamala kwambiri, mwachifundo komanso moganizira ena pothana ndi vuto la kasamalidwe ka dziko lonse lomwe likugwirizana ndi kuitanitsa mayiko padziko lonse lapansi.

NCA monga malo otetezedwa, omwe amadziwika kuti World Heritage Site, World Biosphere Reserve ndi Global Geopark, sali ngati ena.

Ndi kwawo kwa mapangidwe a geologic kuchokera ku Pangea makontinenti asanapangidwe; zolemba zakale za chisinthiko chaumunthu kubwerera zaka 4 miliyoni kuphatikizapo mapazi oyambirira a hominids oyenda bwino; ndi nyama zakuthengo zowoneka bwino kwambiri ku Africa kuphatikiza zodziwika bwino zakusamuka kwa Serengeti.

Poyerekeza ndi America, NCA ili ndi zokopa zophatikizana za Yellowstone, Lava Beds, Mesa Verde, Petrified Forest, ndi Crater national parks.

NCA, yomwe ili pamtunda wa 8,292 km2, imamangidwa ndi Great Rift Valley kumwera ndi zigwa zazifupi za Serengeti kumpoto. Mphepete mwa kumwera kwake kumadziwika ndi mapiri atatu otchuka padziko lonse lapansi omwe atha kuphulika - Ngorongoro, Olmoti, ndi Empakai - komanso nkhalango zapadera zamtambo.

Chigwa cha Ngorongoro ndiye chigwa chachikulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi chomwe chili ndi malo oyambira 250 km2 ozunguliridwa ndi makoma ofikira 600 m. Ndi munda weniweni wa Edeni wodzaza ndi njovu, zipembere, mikango, nyalugwe, njati, antelope, flamingo, cranes, ndi zina zambiri.

Mphepete mwa kumpoto kwa NCA m'mphepete mwa Nyanja ya Ndutu muli malo oberekera nyumbu 1.5 miliyoni zomwe zimapanga chisangalalo chodabwitsa cha Serengeti. Pakatikati pali chigwa cha Oldupai chautali wa makilomita 14 kumene Richard ndi Mary Leakey anafukula zolembedwa zakale za mbiri yakale ndi chisinthiko cha anthu kuyambira zaka 4 miliyoni zapitazo.

Amalemba za kusinthika kwa mitundu inayi yosiyanasiyana ya ma hominids kuphatikizapo "nutcracker man" Australopithecus boisei pafupifupi zaka 1.75 miliyoni zapitazo; Homo habilis, wopanga zida zamwala zoyambirira pakati pa 1.8 mpaka 1.6 miliyoni zaka zapitazo; Homo erectus, hominine yokulirapo, yokulirapo yaubongo yomwe idatsogolera anthu akale amakono Homo sapiens.

Mbiri yaposachedwa ya NCA ya anthu ndi yochititsa chidwi. Pafupifupi zaka 10,000 zapitazo derali linkakhala ndi alenje monga Ahadzabe, omwe amagwiritsa ntchito chinenero chofanana ndi cha “san” kapena ma Bushmen akumwera. Ndi mazana ochepa okha omwe apulumuka akukhala m'mphepete mwa Nyanja ya Eyasi, kumwera kwa NCA.

Pafupifupi zaka 2,000 zapitazo alimi a ku Iraq ochokera kumapiri a Ethiopia adawonekera m'derali. Mitundu ya Bantu ya ku Central Africa inafika kuderali zaka 500 - 400 zapitazo.

Ankhondo ankhondo a Datooga adafika m'derali zaka 300 zapitazo ndipo adasamutsa okhala m'mbuyomu. Amasai anakwera mtsinje wa Nile kuti akafike ku NCA chapakati pa zaka za m'ma 1800, zaka makumi angapo alenje ndi ofufuza a ku Ulaya asanabwere.

Amasai ndi Datooga adamenya nkhondo zowopsa zomwe Amasai adapambana. Masiku ano, Amasai ndi mafuko ochulukirachulukira komanso ofalikira kudera lonse la NCA omwe ali ndi mphamvu zandale zakudera komanso zadziko mothandizidwa ndi magulu othandizira amphamvu m'mizinda yayikulu ku Europe.

Mu 1959, malo osungira nyama a Serengeti-Ngorongoro adagawidwa magawo awiri. Malo osungirako zachilengedwe a Serengeti opanda malo okhala anthu komanso malo osungirako zachilengedwe a Ngorongoro ndi malo okhala azibusa.

Mbiri yakale kuyambira nthawi imeneyo ndi yochepa komanso yosakwanira. Mu 1959, zolemba za atsamunda zikuyerekeza kuti pafupifupi 4,000 mafuko a Amasai omwe amakhala ku NCA ndi chiwerengero chofanana chomwe chinasamuka kuchokera ku Serengeti ndi gulu la ng'ombe pafupifupi 40,000 - 60,000.

Kuyerekeza kwamasiku ano kwa Datooga ndi Hadzabe kuderali kulibe. Masiku ano madera omwe akuchulukirachulukira a NCA apitilira 110,000 ndi ng'ombe, nkhosa, ndi mbuzi zopitilira miliyoni. NCA ikukumana ndi mavuto ambiri chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa anthu okhala m'madera otetezedwa komanso kukula kwaulimi ndi mizinda kufupi ndi malire akumwera.

NCA yamasiku ano ili kutali kwambiri ndi zomwe zinkayembekezeredwa ndi lamulo la 1959 - midzi yochepa ya abusa omwe amakhala pamodzi ndikuthandizira chitetezo cha deralo. Zomwe zikuchitika pano sizikuthandizira madera komanso chitetezo.

Kukhazikika kwachilengedwe kwa NCA, komanso chilengedwe chachikulu cha Serengeti, chili pamavuto akulu chifukwa chakuwonongeka kwa nthaka ndi chitukuko chomwe sichinachitikepo. Miyezo ya moyo m'madera omwe ali mkati mwa NCA ndi osauka kwambiri kuposa alongo awo omwe amakhala kunja omwe ali ndi mwayi wopeza thanzi, maphunziro, ndi misika.

Kufutukula malo okhala mu NCA m’pomveka kufuna kuti anthu azikhalamo mofanana ndi mmene abale awo akunja amasangalalira. Kusamvana komwe kulipo kwa ziyembekezo zosayanjanitsika komanso zosakwaniritsidwa, kusakhutira kwakukulu, komanso tsogolo losatsimikizika ndi zotsatira za zaka zopitilira 60 zoyeserera ndi zolakwika ndi malingaliro ambiri.

Chosankha lero chikuwonekera momveka bwino. Kulola kuti anthu a NCA apindule mofanana ndi omwe amaperekedwa kunja kwa NCA zomwe zimapangitsa kuti chiwerengero cha anthu chiwonjezeke komanso chitukuko cha anthu omwe akukhala m'chipululu kapena kupatsa anthu a NCA mwayi wosankha kuti akhazikitse anthu kunja kwa malire a malo otetezedwa.

Amasai, monganso a Datooga ndi Hadzabe nthawi zonse azisangalala ndi malo azikhalidwe awo mu NCA. Kuchita bwino pazandale kwadzetsa kuwonongeka kwa chilengedwe cha NCA ndi madera. Kutsimikiza kwa ndale kumafunika kukonza njirayo pasanakhale chotsalira chosungira.

Zomwe Purezidenti wa Tanzania Samia akufuna kuchita zikupereka mwayi wopanga tsogolo labwino kwa NCA ndi madera ake. Pulezidenti Samia walamula unduna wawo woona za malo, nyumba, ndi chitukuko cha anthu kuti apereke malo okwana maekala 521,000 kunja kwa NCA kuti anthu athanzike mwaufulu.

Mu 2022, anthu pafupifupi 40,000 ochokera m'mabanja 8,000 akuyembekezeka kuvomera. Boma lagawa anthu 22,000 omwe alibe ziweto ngati osowa. Kuwonjezera apo, 18,000 amawerengedwa kuti ndi osauka kwambiri. Nyumba iliyonse ilandila nyumba yazipinda zitatu pa maekala 3 yokhala ndi maekala 2.5 owonjezera a malo olimapo kuphatikiza kugwiritsa ntchito malo odyetserako ziweto.

Madera omwe adakhazikitsidwanso aphatikizanso masukulu, zipatala, misika, ndi malo osangalalira. Bungwe la NCA lipereka chakudya kwa mabanja omwe adakhazikikamo kwa miyezi 18 kuti zitheke. Zolimbikitsa zosiyana za ndalama ndi ndalama zosamuka zimaperekedwa kwa mabanja a NCA omwe akufuna kusamutsira kudziko lomwe asankha.

Mu 2022, anthu ena 2,000 ochokera m'mabanja 400 akuyembekezeka kugwiritsa ntchito zolimbikitsirazi. Izi ndi zina zolimbikitsa kusamuka kwa anthu mwakufuna kwawo zipitilirabe mpaka 2029. Prime Minister woyamba wa Tanzania Julius Nyerere, pa ufulu wa dziko lake mu 1961, adalengeza za Arusha Manifesto kulonjeza kudzipereka kwa dziko lonse pakusunga nyama zakuthengo kuti apindule a Tanzania ndi dziko lonse lapansi.

Kuwoneratu kwa Purezidenti Samia kumapititsa patsogolo cholowacho. Kulimbikira ndi momwe zinthu zilili pano ndi kupanda udindo, chifukwa mikangano yomwe ikukulirakulirabe, osayankhidwa, idzapangitsa kuti zikhalidwe za chilengedwe ndi chikhalidwe za NCA zitheretu.

Dr. Freddy Manongi ndi Conservation Commissioner wa Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority yomwe imayang'anira NCA. Dr. Kaush Arha m'mbuyomu adakhala Wachiwiri kwa Asst. Mlembi. Za Zanyama Zakuthengo ndi Mapaki ndi Associate Solicitor ku US Dept for Interior.

Nkhani yolembedwa ndi : Freddy Manongi and Kaush Arha

Ponena za wolemba

Adam Ihucha - eTN Tanzania

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