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Kuchokera kwa Alimi kupita kwa Otsutsa mpaka Opanga Vinyo

Chithunzi mwachilolezo cha E.Garely

Sud De France ndi mtundu wa vinyo womwe sunali pamwamba pa mndandanda wa vinyo womwe ndimakonda, kwenikweni, sunali ngakhale pamndandandawo. Ili pakati pa Languedoc-Roussillon ndi Midi-Pyrenees, Sud De France ndi polojekiti yomwe ikufuna kuwonetsa kusiyanasiyana ndi kukongola kwa derali. Dzina latsopano la derali ndi Occitanie, losankhidwa chifukwa cha mbiri yakale ya chinenero ndi zinenero za Occitan.

The Chiokitani lili ndi gawo lofanana ndi dera lomwe likulamulidwa ndi Counts of Toulouse m'zaka za m'ma 12 - 13th ndipo mtanda wa Occitan (womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi Counts of Toulouse) panopa ndi chizindikiro chodziwika bwino cha chikhalidwe.

Occitanie adakhala wovomerezeka pa June 24, 2016, ndipo akuphatikizapo madera ndi chiwerengero cha anthu awa:

Derali lili pakati pa mapiri awiri, Massif Central kumpoto, ndi mapiri a Pyrenean kumwera, komanso pakati pa nyanja ya Mediterranean ndi Atlantic Ocean.

Vinyo wambiri kudera la Languedoc-Roussillon ndi mitundu yofiira yachikhalidwe monga Carignan, Cinsault, Grenache Noir ndi Mourvedre. Zomera pano zikuphatikizapo Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, ndi Syrah. Mitundu yoyera yofunika kwambiri ndi Grenache Blanc, Marsanne, Rousanne Viognier ndi Ugni Blanc ndi chidwi chokulirapo ku Chardonnay.

Mbiri Yodabwitsa

Ngakhale gawo ili la France lili ndi zopambana za vinyo, mbiri yake ndi yosadziwika, kupatula akatswiri a mbiri yakale ndi akatswiri omwe amaganizira kwambiri zachuma ndi ndale zamakampani ogulitsa vinyo.

Kafukufuku akusonyeza kuti dera la Languedoc-Roussillon linakhazikitsidwa koyamba ndi Agiriki omwe anabzala minda ya mpesa m’derali m’zaka za m’ma 5 BC. Kuchokera m'zaka za m'ma 4 mpaka 19, Languedoc idadziwika chifukwa chopanga vinyo wapamwamba kwambiri koma izi zidasintha ndikufika kwa nthawi yamakampani pomwe kupanga kumayendera. ndi gros rouge, unyinji umatulutsa vinyo wofiira wotchipa wogwiritsidwa ntchito kukhutiritsa antchito omwe akukula. Languedoc adadziwika chifukwa chopanga plonk zambiri zosauka zomwe zidaperekedwa mochulukira kwa asitikali aku France pa nthawi ya WWI. Mwamwayi, izi zadutsa m'mbiri, ndipo derali tsopano likupanga vinyo wabwino. Pakadali pano opanga mavinyo am'deralo amapanga vinyo kuchokera ku Bordeaux style reds kupita ku Provence inspired roses.

Gerard Bertrand

Zaka zapitazo, ndinali ndi mwayi wowonanso gawo ili la dziko lapansi ndipo ndinadziwitsidwa njira ya biodynamic yolima mphesa ndi kupanga vinyo kuchokera ku Gerard Bertrand. Zomwe sindimadziwa, zinali mbiri yosokonekera ya derali komanso momwe zochita ndi zochitika za omwe adatenga nawo gawo pamakampani avinyo azaka za m'ma 20 ndi boma la France adapanga maziko amakampani omwe akugulitsa vinyo m'chigawo cha Occitanie.

Nthawi Yaphokoso

Montpelier June 9, 1907. Otsutsa akuukira Place de la Comedie

Kaŵirikaŵiri sitilingalira za anthu a m’makampani avinyo kukhala osintha zinthu ndipo ndithudi osati ankhondo; komabe, mu 1907 alimi a vinyo a ku France ochokera ku Languedoc-Roussillon adatsogolera ziwonetsero zazikulu zomwe zikuyerekezedwa kuti zinali pafupifupi anthu 600,000 - 800,000. Mu 1908 Languedoc ya kumunsi inali ndi chiŵerengero cha anthu miliyoni imodzi, kotero, mmodzi mwa anthu awiri a Languedocan anasonyeza, kufooketsa chigawocho ndi kutsutsa boma.

French Winemakers Nkhani

Kodi nchifukwa ninji Afalansa “anali m’manja”? Anaopsezedwa ndi vinyo wotumizidwa kuchokera ku dziko la France ku Algeria kudzera pa doko la Sete, komanso ndi chaptalization (kuwonjezera shuga musanawotchere kuti muwonjezere mowa). Mamembala amakampani opanga vinyo adapanduka, ndipo ziwonetsero zidaphatikizapo magawo onse amakampani - kuyambira olima mphesa ndi ogwira ntchito m'mafamu mpaka eni minda ndi opanga vinyo. Makampani opanga vinyo anali asanakumanepo ndi zovuta zotere kuyambira pomwe phylloxera idayamba (1870-1880). Zinthu zinali zovuta kwambiri: opanga vinyo sakanatha kugulitsa malonda awo zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale ulova wambiri ndipo aliyense ankaopa kuti zinthu ziipiraipira.

Panthawiyo, boma la France linkaganiza kuti kuitanitsa vinyo wa ku Algeria ndi njira yabwino yothetsera kuchepa kwa vinyo wa ku France komwe kunachitika chifukwa cha phylloxera. Kuchokera mu 1875 mpaka 1889, gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a dera lonse la mpesa la ku France linawonongedwa ndi tizilombo todya mizu ndipo kupanga vinyo wa ku France kunatsika ndi pafupifupi 70 peresenti.

Pamene phylloxera inafalikira, olima mphesa ambiri a ku France anasamukira ku Algeria ndipo anayambitsa luso lawo ndi luso lawo kudera limene mphesa zinkamera kuyambira zaka chikwi zoyamba BC; komabe, zaka mazana ambiri zaulamuliro wa Asilamu zidapanga anthu amderalo omwe samamwa mowa. Nkhani yabwino? Kumwa vinyo ku France zidakhala momwemo! Poyesera kuthana ndi vuto la kusowa, boma la France lidalimbikitsa kupanga vinyo m'chigawo chake cha Algeria pomwe limachepetsa zogula kuchokera ku Spain kapena ku Italy.

Pamene vuto la phylloxera linathetsedwa mwa kulumikiza midzi ya ku America ku vinyo wa ku France, makampani a vinyo a ku France anayamba kubwereranso ndipo pang'onopang'ono kupanga kunabwerera ku mlingo wa 65 miliyoni wa hectoliters. Komabe, mavinyo aku Algeria adasefukira pamsika pamtengo wotsika (kutsika kwa 60 peresenti pazaka 25), zomwe zidasokoneza opanga aku France.

Positi khadi ya 1910 yosonyeza chithunzi cha katundu wavinyo akunyamuka ku Oran, Algeria kupita ku France. Chithunzi chochokera ku Wikimedia Commons

Chiwonetsero

Opanga vinyo ku France adafuna kuti pakhale malire pa vinyo wochokera kunja ndipo adayamba kuwonetsa ziwonetsero za m'misewu ndi ziwawa (zochita zimatsogolera) kuphatikizapo zigawenga, kulanda, ndi kuwotcha nyumba za anthu. mu June 9, 1907 Kupanduka (Grande Revolte, Kupanduka kwa olima mphesa a Languedoc; Zomwe zimadziwikanso kuti Paupers Revolt of the Midi) zidaphatikizanso misonkho, ziwawa, komanso kupandukira magulu ankhondo ambiri zomwe zidapangitsa kuti pakhale zovuta zomwe boma la George Clemenceau lidaponderezedwa.

Ngakhale kuti zipolowezo zinali zachigawo, Bungwe la National Assembly linkaopa kuti gulu lakummwera limeneli linali kuukira dziko la France. Poyankha ziwonetserozi, boma la France lidakweza mitengo yamitengo ya vinyo kuchokera ku Italy ndi Spain chomwe chidali cholakwika china chifukwa idakulitsanso kugulitsa kwa Algeria popanda msonkho.

Apanso, opanga ku France (kuphatikiza Bordeaux, Champagne ndi Burgundy) adatsata boma "kuwalimbikitsa" kuti aletse kulowa kwa vinyo wa ku Algeria chifukwa akufuna kuteteza misika yawo ya "vinyo wapamwamba". Anakakamiza kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo atsopano, kuchirikiza oimira ndale ochokera kumadera omwe adagwirizana ndi malingaliro awo. Manthawa adakhala ngati chinyengo ndipo gululo linatha mu kusagwirizana, kukhumudwa ndi zomwe zimawoneka ngati kupambana kwa boma lapakati.

Doko la Sete lidayambitsa mavutowa. Mzindawu unali likulu la malo opangira zinthu zambiri ndipo unawonjezera chiopsezo cha kuchulukitsa polimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito mphesa za Aramoni kuchokera ku minda ikuluikulu ya mpesa - kupanga voliyumu. Mavinyo aku Algeria ndi kupanga zidakwera kuchoka pa malita 500,000,000 mu 1900 kufika 800,000,0000 mu 1904. Kuchulukirachulukira komanso kupezeka kwa mavinyo abodza komanso kuphatikizika kwa vinyo wa ku Algeria kunadzaza msika wa ogula ndipo zogulitsa kunja zidachulukira mu 1907 ndikuchepetsa kuchepa. pamtengo ndipo pamapeto pake zidayambitsa mavuto azachuma.

Mu 1905 boma la France linakhazikitsa lamulo lokhudza “chinyengo ndi bodza,” n’kuika maziko opangira vinyo “wachibadwa”. Ndime 431 imati vinyo wogulitsidwa amayenera kufotokoza momveka bwino chiyambi cha vinyo kuti apewe, "zachinyengo zamalonda," ndipo adanenanso momveka bwino kuti lamuloli limagwiranso ntchito ku Algeria. Malamulo ena oteteza opanga vinyo adayambitsa kulumikizana kwapadera pakati pa "ubwino" wa vinyo, dera lomwe adapangidwa (terroir), ndi njira yachikhalidwe yopangira, kukhazikitsa malire amadera a Bordeaux, Cognac, Armagnac ndi Champagne ( 1908-1912) ndipo amatchedwa matchulidwe.

Tsoka ilo, opanga vinyo ku Southern France sanathe kupindula ndi malamulowa ngakhale adalimbikitsanso mavinyo aku Algeria. Boma silinafune kuyika mavinyo aku Algeria chifukwa zikanasokoneza zokonda za nzika zaku France zakunja komanso sizikugwirizana ndi kuphatikiza kwa Algeria ngati gawo la France.

Pamapeto pake, malamulo atsopanowa sanakhudze kwambiri misika yavinyo yaku France ndipo mavinyo aku Algeria adasefukira m'misika ya ku France ndipo kupanga vinyo ku Algeria kudachulukira, mothandizidwa ndi lamulo lolola mabanki angongole zaulimi kupereka ngongole zapakati komanso zazitali kwa opanga vinyo. Anthu aku Europe omwe amakhala ku Algeria adabwereka ndalama zochulukirapo ndikupitiliza kukulitsa minda yawo yamphesa ndi kupanga. Sizinachitike mpaka boma la France lidayimitsa vinyo onse omwe sanali a Chifalansa kuti asagwiritsidwe ntchito muzosakaniza (zomwe zidatengedwa ndi mayiko ena a ku Europe mu 1970) pomwe zidayamba kuchepa kupanga vinyo waku Algeria. Kuphatikiza apo, kuyambira 1888 mpaka 1893, opanga vinyo a Midi adayambitsa kampeni yayikulu yolimbana ndi vinyo waku Algeria wonena kuti vinyo waku Algeria wosakanikirana ndi vinyo wochokera ku Bordeaux anali ndi poizoni. Akatswiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo sanathe kutsimikizira zonenazo; komabe, mphekeserazo zinapitirira mpaka m’ma 1890.

Boma la Algeria linatembenukira ku Soviet Union ngati msika wotheka ndipo adakhazikitsa mgwirizano wazaka 7 wa ma hectolita 5 miliyoni a vinyo pachaka - koma mtengo wake unali wotchipa kwambiri kuti opanga vinyo aku Algeria apeze phindu; popanda misika yogulitsa kunja, kupanga kudagwa. Panalibe msika wakunyumba chifukwa Algeria inali ndipo ikupitilizabe kukhala dziko la Muslin.

Ngakhale kuti malamulowa adalimbikitsidwa ndi momwe zinthu zilili ndi kugulitsa kwa vinyo ku Algeria ndi mitengo yotsika, zotsatira zake zakhala nthawi yayitali. Mu 1919, lamulo linanena kuti ngati apilo agwiritsidwa ntchito ndi opanga osaloledwa, milandu ingayambitsidwe ndi iwo. Mu 1927, lamulo linakhazikitsa malamulo oletsa mitundu ya mphesa ndi njira zolimitsira mphesa zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga vinyo. Mu 1935, Appellations d'Origine Controllees (AOC) idaletsa kupanga osati kungochokera kumadera enieni komanso njira zina zopangira mphesa, kumwa mowa pang'ono, komanso zokolola zambiri zamphesa. Lamuloli lidapanga maziko a malamulo a AOC ndi DOC omwe ndi ofunikira m'misika yavinyo ya European Union (EU).

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

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Ponena za wolemba

Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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