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Mbiri Yakale ya Bridgetown Barbados: Yofunika ulendo wokha

Chithunzi chovomerezeka ndi visitbarbados.org

Barbados imadzazidwa ndi zokopa za UNESCO Heritage. M'tawuni yadoko komanso likulu la Bridgetown, likulu la dziko lino ndi lomwe limayang'ana kwambiri maofesi akuluakulu, nyumba yamalamulo, ndi kugula. Garrison ndi amodzi mwa 8 Cultural Heritage Conservation Areas pachilumbachi ndipo akuyimira khutu lodziwika bwino la mbiri yakale yautsamunda. Mkati mwa malowa muli nyumba zokwana 115. Kuphatikiza kwa Historic Bridgetown ndi Garrison yake ikuyimira mbiri yakale, atsamunda, ndi zomangamanga za anthu wamba limodzi ndi zinthu zabwino zaluso ndi sayansi yokonzekera matawuni.

Ndipo zowona, kuchokera kuzinthu zosangalatsa zophikira kupita kukagula, Bridgetown ndi malo ake oyendera maulendo apamadzi ndi zomangamanga zakale ndizo mtengo waulendo zonse zokha.

Mbiri ya Bridgetown, kuyambira kukhazikitsidwa kwa mbiri yakale yaku America yaku America kudzera muulamuliro waku Britain, kumasulidwa, ufulu wodziyimira pawokha komanso mpaka pano, ndi gawo lalikulu lakusintha kwachuma, chikhalidwe, ndi ndale ku Barbados m'zaka mazana ambiri.

Pre-European

Zofukulidwa m'mabwinja ku Port St. Charles zikuwonetsa kukhazikika kwa Amerindian ku Barbados kuyambira 1623 BCE. Chidziwitso chatsatanetsatane chakukhazikika kwa mbiri yakale ku Bridgetown sikudziwika, ngakhale kufukula kwapeza umboni wa malo okhala m'dera lomwe lili ndi Fontabelle, Spring Garden (West), Suttle Street (North), Careenage (South), ndi Graves End (East. ). Masamba onse amadziwika kuti ali ndi mwayi wopita kumadzi am'madzi amchere. Ndipotu, pakatikati pa Bridgetown poyamba panali dambo lomwe linatsanuliridwa ndipo kenako linadzazidwa. Kafukufuku wofukulidwa m'mabwinja amatsimikiziranso kuti zikhalidwe zinayi zazikulu za ceramic za Amerindi zinalipo ku Bridgetown.

Amwenye a ku America pachilumbachi anali alimi komanso asodzi omwe ankangopezako ndalama. Anagwiritsa ntchito njira zophatikizirapo kulima kodula ndi kuwotcha komwe kumadziwika kuti conuco, komwe kumapangitsa malo ang'onoang'ono ang'onoang'ono ozunguliridwa ndi nkhalango zomwe zidalipo, nthawi zambiri kufupi ndi m'mphepete mwa madzi. Okwana masauzande ambiri m’zaka mazana ambiri, Azungu asanafike, Amwenye a ku Amereka anali atapita pofika m’chaka cha 1550, atatheratu chifukwa cha kulanda akapolo kuchokera kwa atsamunda a ku Spain. Ngakhale tsatanetsatane wa madera amasiku ano a Bridgetown sakudziwika, mlatho wodutsa mumtsinje wa Constitution udapezedwa pambuyo pake ndi atsamunda achingerezi, kenako adakhala dzina la Mzindawu. Barbados inapezeka mwalamulo mu 1536 ndi wofufuza malo wotchuka wa Chipwitikizi, Pedro a Campos paulendo wake wopita ku Brazil. Pambuyo pake idapezeka ndi wofufuza waku America, John Wesley Powell pa 14 Meyi 1625.

Coloni yaku Britain

Nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Britain imadziwika ndi zaka mazana anayi zachitukuko chapanyanja, zomwe zidapangitsa Bridgetown kukhala malo ovuta kwambiri pakuwongolera zamalonda ndi zankhondo za Ufumuwo. Kutsatira zombo za ku Spain ndi Chipwitikizi, zomwe m'zaka za zana la khumi ndi zisanu ndi chimodzi zinkaima pang'ono ku Barbados kaamba ka madzi, zombo za Chingerezi zinafika ku Barbados mu 1624 ndikudzitengera Korona. Bridgetown inakhazikika patatha zaka zinayi. Kuyambira pamenepo, Bridgetown idatsata njira zazaka za zana la 17 zamadoko ena monga Kingston, Boston ndi New York potengera kuchuluka kwa anthu komanso kufunikira kwake. Sosaite poyamba idapangidwa mozungulira kulima kwapang'ono kwa thonje ndi fodya ku Caribbean, eni malo achingerezi omwe amalowetsa akapolo a Amerindi ndi Azungu omwe adabadwa.

Nzimbe zinabweretsedwa pachilumbachi mu 1640 ndi obzala monga James Drax, wofunitsitsa kusintha kuchokera kumakampani omwe atsala pang'ono kufa komanso kuthandizidwa ndi Ayuda a Sephardic othamangitsidwa ku Brazil ya Chipwitikizi. Kukhazikitsidwa kwa nzimbe kunayambitsa kusintha kwa kayendetsedwe ka chuma ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu ku Barbadian zomwe Bridgetown inali yokonzeka kupindula nayo. Zotsalira zakale zimawoneka ku Bridgetown, kuphatikiza Synagogue ya Nidhe Israel, imodzi mwazakale kwambiri kumadzulo kwa dziko lapansi, yomwe idamangidwanso chimphepo chamkuntho cha 1831 chidawononga denga lake.

Bridgetown inali ndi doko lachilengedwe lotetezeka ku Careenage, lalitali lokwanira kuyika zombo zamasiku amenewo komanso kusungirako malo opangira zombo zomangira ndi kukonza. Minda ikuluikulu posakhalitsa idakhala malo okhazikika ku Barbados, ndipo misewu yayikulu idapangidwa kuti itumize katundu ku doko lachilengedwe la Bridgetown kuti atumize ku Europe. Zofunikira zosinthira zopanga zidapangitsanso kufunikira kwakukulu kwa ntchito zaukapolo ku Africa, ndipo Bridgetown idakhala malo ofunikira kwambiri pakuyenda ndi kugulitsa kwawo. Kutengera izi, kuchuluka kwa anthu aku Barbados kudasintha kuchokera pachilumba mu 1644 chomwe chinali ndi anthu 800 ochokera ku Africa mwa 30,000 onse, kupita pachilumba mu 1700 ndi akapolo 60,000 mwa 80,000 onse. Pofika chakumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 17, Bridgetown inali njira yolumikizirana ndi malonda apadziko lonse ku Britain Americas, ndipo umodzi mwamizinda ikuluikulu itatu: 60% ya zotumiza ku England kupita ku Caribbean zidakonzedwa kudzera padoko la Bridgetown. Kukula kwachuma chozikidwa pazamalondaku kudafanana ndi kuchuluka kwankhondo Kuyambira 1800 mpaka 1885,

Bridgetown inali mpando wa boma la madera omwe kale anali ku Britain ku Windward Islands. Mu 1881, Barbados Railway inamalizidwa kuchokera ku Bridgetown kupita ku Carrington. Posakhalitsa, kukhalapo kwa tramway kunakhala chikhalidwe choyambirira cha chitukuko. Black Rock, EagleHall, Fontabelle, Roebuck ndi Bellville anali malo ang'onoang'ono omwe adakulirakulira chifukwa cholumikizira ma tramu ku Bridgetown pachimake, ndipo adalowetsedwa mumzindawu.

Pambuyo pa kuchotsedwa kwa asitikali aku Britain m'makoloni pofika 1905, gawo limodzi mwa magawo anayi a madera ozungulira Savannah adagulidwa ndi eni malo, kuphatikiza a Main Guard (mpaka Boma lidatenganso umwini mu 1989). Masiku ano, ku Savannah kudakali malo ochepa kwambiri okhalamo, ndipo nyumba zambiri zogwiritsidwa ntchito zimachokera ku kutembenuka kwa nyumba zankhondo.

Pambuyo paukoloni

Komabe malo ofunikira kwambiri kum'mawa kwa Caribbean, kusintha kwa chikhalidwe cha anthu kunasintha Bridgetown pakati pa zaka za zana la 20. Kufika kwagalimoto yamagalimoto kudapangidwa ndipo kwapitilira kubweretsa zovuta m'misewu yopapatiza ya Bridgetown. Mu 1962, zaka zingapo dziko lisanalandire ufulu wodzilamulira mu 1966, Mtsinje wa Constitution, Careenage ndi madera otsala a madambo adadzazidwa ndikusinthidwa ndi ngalande. Izi zidatsata kumangidwa kwa Bridgetown Harbor ndi Deep Water Port mu 1961, kukopa mgwirizano wamalonda ndi kulumikizana kutali ndi Careenage, komanso mabizinesi ogwirizana nawo. Nyumba zosungiramo katundu zomwe zinali zopanda anthu zinasinthidwa kukhala maofesi, mashopu, ndi malo oimika magalimoto pamene chigawo chapakati cha bizinesi chinakula.

Chiwerengero cha anthu ku Bridgetown chinachulukirachulukira atamasulidwa mu 1834 ndipo zochulukirapo pambuyo pa kusinthasintha kwa mafakitale a nzimbe kunapangitsa antchito kupita kumadera akugombe. Kusiyanasiyana kwachuma cha Barbados kuyambira m'ma 1950 mpaka m'ma 1970 kunabweretsa kukhazikika kwakukulu ku Bridgetown, kumayenda nthawi imodzi ndikutukuka kwamatauni. Dera la Greater Bridgetown linali ndi chiwonjezeko chapakati pachaka chopitilira 14% pakati pa 1920 ndi 1960, ndi kuchuluka kwa anthu ochepera 5%. Pofika m'zaka za m'ma 1970 malire amatauni anayamba kukhazikika, ndipo chiwerengero cha anthu chinawonjezeka chifukwa cha kukula kwa malo omwe analipo kale. Pofika mchaka cha 1980, anthu aku Bridgetown anali 106,500, zomwe zikuyimira 43% ya dziko lonse. Mfundo zachitukuko ndi umphawi zidatsata posachedwa, kuyambira parishi yaku Saint Michael, kenako idafalikira pachilumba chonsecho. Kugawikana kosalekeza kwa nyumba zobwereketsa kunayamba kubweretsa vuto losalowera mumsewu, zowoneka bwino komanso ting'onoting'ono, komanso kusowa kwa malo ochezera. Kaya amatsogoleredwa mwachinsinsi kapena pagulu, malo adapangidwa popanda njira yophatikizira yokonzekera.

Posachedwapa, zochitika zingapo zofunika zakondwerera ndikukweza kufunikira kwa mbiri yakale komanso chuma chambiri cha Bridgetown. Mu 2011, Historic Bridgetown ndi Garrison yake idadziwika kuti ndi malo a UNESCO World Heritage. Kuzindikirika kofunikiraku ndikofunikira kwambiri pakusintha kwatsopano kwa PDP ndipo kwakhazikitsa malire a Mapulani a Community. Malo atsopano obiriwira adapangidwa ndikupangidwa kwa Jubilee Gardens, Independence Square, ndi Church Village Green. Kusintha kwaposachedwa kwa Mtsinje wa Constitution kwabwezeretsa njira ya mtsinje ndi maulumikizidwe panjira. Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 2000 kubwezeretsedwa kwa Synagoge ya Nidhe Israel ndi mikvah yake komanso kutsirizitsa kwaposachedwa kwa gawo loyamba la kubwezeretsedwa kwa Synagogue Block ndikuwonetsa, komanso chothandizira, kubwereketsanso chuma cha chikhalidwe cha Bridgetown pachimake.

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Wachinyamata T Steinmetz

Juergen Thomas Steinmetz wakhala akugwirabe ntchito zapaulendo komanso zokopa alendo kuyambira ali wachinyamata ku Germany (1977).
Iye adayambitsa eTurboNews mu 1999 ngati nkhani yoyamba yapaintaneti yantchito zapaulendo padziko lonse lapansi.

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