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Ulamuliro ndi Mabungwe a Bordeaux Wineries: Mwa Chilamulo ndi Chosankha

Chithunzi mwachilolezo cha E.Garely

Makampani opanga vinyo ku France amakhazikitsidwa pa malamulo: cepages (mitundu ya mphesa zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga vinyo), malo, zokolola, ukalamba ndi zina "zoyenera kuchita" zomwe zimatsimikiziridwa m'matchulidwe aliwonse. Chifukwa cha zovuta zomwe opanga vinyo aku France amakumana nazo, poyesa kuthana ndi malamulowo, kuwapotoza kapena kuwapewa, opanga vinyo amapeza kuti "mayanjano" a wineries amapanga njira yabwino yopezera phindu.

A. Les Cotes de Bordeaux (Les Cotes)

Les Cotes idapangidwa (2008) ndikulumikizana kwa zilembo zinayi zomwe adaganiza zolumikizana ndikugulitsa ngati gulu osati ngati minda yamphesa. Gulu lomwe lilipo pano likuphatikizapo Blaye, Cadillac, Cote de Franc ndi Castillon ndipo pamodzi adapanga dzina lachiwiri lalikulu ku Bordeaux ndi mahekitala 12,000 (maekala 30,000).

Kuyambira pachiyambi, zogulitsa kunja zawonjezeka ndi pafupifupi 29 peresenti mu voliyumu ndi 34 +/- ndi voliyumu. Mgwirizanowu watha kupeza mitengo yabwinoko potsatsa limodzi ndipo alimi ang'onoang'ono omwe amakhala ku Les Cotes amapindula ndi chizolowezi cha ogula kugula mwachindunji kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe zili pakhomo la cellar.

Les Cotes de Bordeaux ndi:

- 1000 opanga vinyo

- 30,000 maekala (10 peresenti ya Bordeaux yonse)

- mabotolo 65 miliyoni, kapena milandu 5.5 miliyoni; 97 peresenti ya vinyo wofiira

- Mitundu ya mphesa: vinyo wambiri amasakanikirana ndi Merlot (5-80 peresenti), kuphatikiza Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc ndi Malbec.

B. Vin de France (VDF). Vinicultural Freedom

Kuyambira 2010, gulu ili la wineries amadziwika kwa tebulo vinyo ndipo m'malo wakale vin de tebulo gulu. Vin de France ingaphatikizepo mitundu ya mphesa (ie, Chardonnay kapena Merlot) ndi mpesa pa lebulo koma samalembedwa ndi dera kapena dzina - kungoti ndi French. Kugulitsa vinyo padziko lonse lapansi komwe amadziwika kuti VDF tsopano kumakhala mabotolo 340 miliyoni pachaka - mabotolo 10 amagulitsidwa sekondi iliyonse.

Vinyo wa VDF ndi mavinyo omwe samakwaniritsa zomwe zanenedwa ndi AOC kapena IGP (Indication Geographique Progegee) malamulo otchulira dzina - mwina minda yamphesayo ili kunja kwa malo omwe amapangidwira kapena mitundu ya mphesa kapena njira za vinification sizigwirizana ndi malamulo amatchulidwe akomweko. . Lingaliro (lomwe linkaganiziridwa kuti linali latsopano panthawiyo), lidalola ma vintners kusakaniza vinyo wochokera kumadera osiyanasiyana ndi mitundu yatsopano ya mphesa, kuyimira kusintha kwakukulu kwa dziko lomwe lili ndi magawo a vinyo. VDF idapangidwa kuti imasulire opanga mavinyo, kulola kupanga mavinyo omwe angapikisane ndi mitundu yapadziko lonse lapansi ndikuwongolera vinyo waku France, kuwapangitsa kuti azitha kupezeka kwa ogula.

Makina omangira vinyo a ku France akhala akuvutitsa anthu aku America chifukwa ogulitsa ndi sommeliers adatsutsidwa kuti amasulire dongosolo la gulu la appellation d'origine controlee (AOC) ndi zovuta zake. VDF imapereka njira yosavuta yowonetsera vinyo wabwino kwambiri komanso malo abwino olowera kwa ogula omwe akufuna kuwona vinyo waku France kuphatikiza Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Merlot, ndi Cabernet Sauvignon. Kugulitsa kwa VDF mu 2019 kudawerengera milandu 1.6 miliyoni ndi North America msika wachinayi waukulu, womwe ukuyimira 12 peresenti ya voliyumu ndi 16 peresenti yamtengo wogulitsidwa.

C. Counseil Interprofessional du Vin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux Wine Council, CIVB)

Mu 1948 Bordeaux Wine Council idakhazikitsidwa kudzera mu Chilamulo cha ku France ndipo imaphatikiza olima vinyo, amalonda ndi amalonda omwe amagawana ntchito imodzi:

1. Kutsatsa. Limbikitsani zofuna, lembani ogula achichepere, ndikuwonetsetsa kukhulupirika kwawo ku mtunduwo.

2. Maphunziro. Ku malonda ndi kulimbitsa maubale.

3. Zaukadaulo. Mangani chidziwitso; kuteteza khalidwe la vinyo wa Bordeaux; yembekezerani zatsopano zokhudzana ndi chilengedwe, CSR ndi malamulo otetezera chakudya.

4. Zachuma. Perekani nzeru pakupanga, msika, chilengedwe ndi kugulitsa vinyo wa Bordeaux padziko lonse lapansi.

5. Zokonda. Tetezani ma terroirs, menyani zachinyengo, pangani zokopa alendo.

6. Gulu. Imathandiza kudziwitsa ogula pochepetsa chiwopsezo pamene gululi likupikisana, nthawi ndi nthawi ndipo limapereka kuwunika kofunikira kwa vinyo ndi otsutsa apadziko lonse lapansi.

Pa Juni 28, 2019, CIVD, poyang'ana zaka ziwiri za kafukufuku, idalimbikitsa kuwonjezera mitundu isanu ndi umodzi ya mphesa yosamva kutentha yomwe sinabzalidwe m'derali, kuti iloledwe kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito muzosakaniza za Bordeaux. Kusinthaku kunavomerezedwa chifukwa choopa kutentha kwa dziko kuwononga makampani onse. Pamene nyengo ikutentha, opanga vinyo akuyesera kuthana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo komwe kunayambitsa kusintha kwa kakomedwe pogwiritsa ntchito njira zambiri kuti apeze mayankho.

Pa Januware 26, 2021, Institut National de l'Origne et de la Qualite (INAO), bungweli limayang'anira zosankhidwa za mphesa, livomereza mwalamulo kugwiritsa ntchito mitundu inayi yatsopano yamphesa yofiira ndi iwiri yoyera m'chigawo cha Bordeaux kuphatikiza:

Network:

Arinarnoa

Castets

Marselan

Touriga Naction

Zoyera:

Alvarinho

Liliorila

Mitundu iyi ndi zowonjezera ku mphesa zomwe zabvomerezedwa m'matchulidwe omwe alipo.

Mphesa zomwe zili pachiwopsezo chachikulu ndi Merlot ndi Sauvignon Blanc zomwe zimapanga mipesa yofiira ndi yoyera kudera la Bordeaux. Kusintha kwanyengo chakumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1990, kukolola mphesa zoyamba kucha kunafika ku Ogasiti pomwe Seputembara 10 mpaka Okutobala 10 kukhala mbiri yakale yokolola. Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti mitundu iwiri ya mphesayi monga momwe ilipo, ikhoza kukhala yopanda ntchito pofika 2050.

D. Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois

Mu 1907, kunakhazikitsidwa lamulo louza alimi kuti anene kukula kwa zokolola zawo ndipo angotulutsa vinyo wochuluka monga momwe ananeneratu kuti adzakolola. Komabe, alimi ena adachulukitsa kukula kwa zokolola zawo (1907-08) kotero - amatha kuchulukitsa malonda awo ndi vinyo wotsika mtengo wochokera ku Midi kapena kubweretsa vinyo kuchokera kunja kwa dera.

Nthawi zambiri a French amayesa kuwongolera khalidwe. Mu 1932 Afalansa anayesa kuyika ma chateaux odziwika pang'ono m'magulu ophatikizamo ma wineries 444, 6 pamlingo wapamwamba kwambiri wa crus bourgeois wapadera, 99 crus bourgeois superior ndi 339 plain crus bourgeois.

Mu 1966, kusanja kudafotokozedwanso ndi Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois ndipo mu 1978 panali ma chateaux 128 omwe adalembedwa. Mu 1978 European Community (tsopano EU) inatsimikiza kuti mawu akuti GRAND ndi EXCEPTIONAL anali opanda tanthauzo ndipo sakanatha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito. Kuyambira pamenepo, ma crus' bourgeois onse anali ma crus bourgeois. Izi zinatsegula zipata kuti anthu omwe anali kunja kwa Medoki agwiritse ntchito mawuwa.

Momwe Syndicate imagwirira ntchito pano:

Chateaux omwe akufuna kugwiritsa ntchito dzina la cru bourgeois alembetse ku Syndicat (mtengo wake $435). Malowa amatumiza zambiri za ntchitoyi (mbiri yakale, njira zowonetsera, ndi zina zotero)

Zofunikira pakuphatikizidwa zidzakhala:

– Terroir

- Ubwino (zitsanzo za vinyo kuchokera ku mpesa 6 kuti zilawe ndi komiti)

- Miyezo ya viticulture ndi vinification

- Kusasinthasintha kwa khalidwe

- Mbiri

Kodi chateaux yomwe ikugwiritsa ntchito dzina la cru bourgeois pamavinyo awo achiwiri iloledwa kupitiliza?

Kodi chateaux iliyonse idzakhala ndi cellar yakeyake?

Kodi izi zimasiya kuti ma cooperative? 

Komitiyi ili ndi mamembala 18 (ocheperapo membala wa faculty mmodzi kuchokera ku Bordeaux School of Enology, ma broker, negociants, mamembala a cru bourgeois Syndicat). Ma wineries amawunikidwa zaka 10-12 zilizonse. Olembera omwe akuwoneka kuti ndi osayenera sadzaloledwa kugwiritsa ntchito dzina la cru bourgeois pamalebulo awo ndipo adzayenera kudikirira mpaka kubwereza kotsatira kuti alembenso.

Posachedwapa, Syndicat inabwezeretsanso "zapadera" ndi "zapamwamba" kuphatikizapo dongosolo la magawo atatu kuti lilimbikitse opanga kuyang'ana pa khalidwe lawo ndikugwira ntchito yawo. Dongosolo la tiered limayendetsedwa mosamalitsa kuti mawu apamwamba ndi apadera akhale ndi phindu. Choopsa m'dongosololi ndikuti mndandandawu udzakhala wolemetsa kwambiri ndipo ambiri amawonedwa ngati apadera komanso ochepa kwambiri ngati ma crus bourgeois wamba zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala kovuta kusunga piramidi.

Botolo la Botolo la Vinyo

Zolemba za vinyo za ku France zimakhala ndi dzina la mudziwo osati mitundu ya mphesa. Ndi chitsimikizo kuti mphesa za vinyo zimachokeradi kumudzi kapena dera linalake chifukwa dera lililonse la vinyo lili ndi malamulo apadera omwe amalamulira mitundu ya mphesa yomwe ingabzalidwe, zokolola zovomerezeka ndi momwe vinyo amapangidwira. Mavinyo aku France omwe amati AOC, AC, ndi AOP amatsimikizira kuti vinyo amapangidwa motsatira miyambo yolimba ya viticultural ndi winemaking.

Miyezo yopangira makina a AOC imaphatikizapo:

1. Dzina la wopanga

2. Mphesa zokulirapo m'matchulidwe aliwonse

3. Mowa

4. Voliyumu

5. Maphukusi

6. Kuletsa mitundu ya dothi

7. Ma metric otengera zotsatira ngati zokolola zambiri kapena mowa.

Vinyo Tsogolo

Pali zifukwa zokhalira ndi chiyembekezo pakati pa mafani a vinyo a Bordeaux popeza kuchuluka kwa malo opangira vinyo ku Bordeaux kwakula pafupifupi zaka khumi pomwe opanga amamvetsetsa ubwino wa chilengedwe ndi malonda posintha kupanga. Akuti pofika chaka cha 2030, 100 peresenti ya malo opangira vinyo adzakhala ndi njira zina zovomerezeka zaulimi / kupanga.

Mu 2014, 34 peresenti ya wineries onse ku Bordeaux ankalima organically, kukhazikika pansi pa HEV (mtengo wapamwamba wa chilengedwe) ndi HEV certification yoyang'ana kuchepetsa kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ophera tizilombo ndi kuchulukitsa zamoyo zosiyanasiyana, Terra Vitis, kapena biodynamic certified. Pakali pano chiwerengerochi chikudutsa pa 65 peresenti (pafupifupi).

Malinga ndi a Jeremy Noye, Purezidenti ndi CEO wa Morrell & Co. Pa mtengo wake, okonda vinyo wa Bordeaux atha kusiya zilembo za Kukula Kwambiri zomwe zikugulitsidwa pa $600 botolo ndi kukula kwachiwiri pa $300, ndikusuntha mawonekedwe awo kupita ku petits-chateaux omwe amachokera ku $20-$70 a 750-ml. Bordeaux posachedwa idakhala nambala 1 pakati pa zigawo zazikulu zogulitsa vinyo ku France, Displace Provence.

Uwu ndi mndandanda womwe umayang'ana kwambiri vinyo wa Bordeaux.

Werengani Gawo 1 Pano:  Vinyo wa Bordeaux: Anayamba ndi Ukapolo

Werengani Gawo 2 Pano:  Vinyo wa Bordeaux: Pivot kuchokera kwa Anthu kupita ku Dothi

Werengani Gawo 3 Pano:  Bordeaux ndi Vinyo Wake Kusintha… Pang'onopang'ono

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

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Ponena za wolemba

Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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