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Vinyo wa Bordeaux: Anayamba ndi Ukapolo

Chithunzi chovomerezeka ndi Jean Cont

Nditapita ku Bordeaux, ndinadabwa ndi zomangamanga zokongola kwambiri za m'zaka za m'ma 18 zokhala ndi nyumba zazikulu ndi nyumba zapagulu zomwe zimapangitsa mzindawu kukhala wokongola kwambiri komanso womangidwa bwino. Kodi gwero la ndalama zomwe zinamanga mzindawu zinali zotani - ndithudi sizinachokere kumayambiriro kwa malonda a vinyo. Kubisalira kuseri kwa ma facade okongolawa ndi cholowa choyipa kwambiri.

Malonda a Akapolo

Ukapolo udatenga gawo lofunikira pakutukula chuma cha Bordeaux pakati pazaka za 16th-19th. Inali bizinesi yopindulitsa ndi zombo za ku France zosuntha anthu aku Africa pafupifupi 2 miliyoni kupita ku Dziko Latsopano kudzera mu malonda a transatlantic, zomwe zimayenda maulendo opitilira 500 akapolo.

Chapakati pa zaka za m'ma 17, a Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Nduna ya Zachuma kwa Louis XIV, adapanga Code Noir ndipo idafotokoza za ukapolo mu ufumu wa atsamunda waku France kuphatikiza:

1. Akapolo othawa kwawo omwe sanakhalepo kwa mwezi umodzi ankapatsidwa chizindikiro ndipo makutu awo ankadulidwa.

2. Chilango cha miyezi iwiri yosakhalapo chinali kudula minyewa.

3. Kusakhalapo kwachitatu kumabweretsa imfa.

4. Eni ake ankatha kuwamanga unyolo ndi kumenya akapolo, koma osati kuwazunza kapena kuwaduladula.

Code Noir idawerengedwa kuti ndi imodzi mwazolemba zambiri zamtundu, ukapolo, ndi ufulu zomwe zidalembedwapo ku Europe.

Ukapolo unathetsedwa mu 1794 chifukwa cha Haiti ndi French Revolution. Pamene Napoleon Bonaparte adalowa mu ulamuliro ndi cholinga chokhazikitsa ufumu wa France chimodzi mwa zosintha zake chinali chakuti ukapolo unalinso wovomerezeka (1804). Zingatenge zaka 40 kuti ukapolo uthetsedwe, ngakhale udapitilirabe mobisa, mpaka nkhondo yapachiweniweni yaku US itatha. Nyumba yamalamulo yaku France idalengeza kuti ukapolo ndi mlandu wotsutsana ndi anthu mu 2001

chikatikati

Amalonda a ku France anali aluso kwambiri, akumalemba malamulo kuti athe kuyendetsa bwino malonda a akapolo. Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 19 France inataya koloni yake yofunika kwambiri, St. Domingue (pakali pano Haiti), ndipo pamene gulu lothetsa vutoli linakula ku Ulaya, ogulitsa akapolo. ku Bordeaux (imodzi mwa malo akuluakulu ogulitsa malonda a malonda a akapolo padziko lapansi), anakumana ndi chitsenderezo cha kusiya malonda autsamunda okhudzana ndi malonda a anthu omwe anali akapolo, n'kuyamba kuchita malonda ndi chinthu china ndipo vinyo analowa m'malo mwake.

Kupyolera mu kusinthaku mabanja amalonda anapitirizabe kuchita bwino ndikusonkhanitsa chuma (17 mwa mabanja 25 olemera kwambiri omwe amagulitsidwa m'minda yonseyi). Oyambitsa malonda a vinyo anali aluso kwambiri kotero kuti masiku ano, zaka mazana ambiri pambuyo pake, ambiri mwa mabanja amalondawa akupitiriza kukhala ndi maudindo otsogolera mu vinyo wabwino ndi mafakitale okhudzana ndi misewu yambiri mumzindawu otchedwa pambuyo pawo kuphatikizapo (ie, David Gradis, 1665- 1751, msewu yemwe anali ndi zombo 10 za akapolo; Msewu wa Saige; Place des Quinconces, malo akulu kwambiri ku Bordeaux, akapolo omwe adayendera kuti anthu aziwonera).

Ndondomeko Zamalonda Zasinthidwanso

Njira zamabizinesi zomwe zidayambika pakugulitsa anthu zidapanga maziko a malonda avinyo. Malingaliro omwe agwiritsidwanso ntchito ndi awa:

1. Zinthu zowonongeka zamtengo wapatali zomwe zatumizidwa kwa zaka zopitirira zana.

2. Miyezo ya Bordeaux imatanthawuza "ubwino" wa anthu omwe ali muukapolo kutsindika gwero la chiyambi (zigawo zosiyanasiyana za kumadzulo kwa Africa) kukhazikitsa magulu anayi apamwamba.

3. Njira zopangira mitengo zinagwiritsidwa ntchito pokhazikitsa mtengo woyambira wamtengo wapatali kwambiri wokhala ndi magawo otsika pagulu lililonse lotsika.

4. Lingaliro la microclimate (nthaka, mvula, ndi zina zotero) zogwirizanitsidwa ndi gawo laling'ono lapadera linali lofunikira pakutanthauzira kwa khalidwe.

Pogwiritsa ntchito dongosolo la malonda a akapolo monga template, mu 1855 gulu lodziwika bwino la vinyo lodziwika bwino linalongosola vinyo wabwino ndipo malamulowo anatchula makalasi asanu apamwamba kuchokera ku Quincoces Premier Cru kupita ku Cinquie me Cru - dongosolo lomwe lidakalipo.

Mabanja amalonda anaika ndalama zake pantchito yopanga vinyo, kugula minda yamphesa yakale, kukhetsa madzi, ndi kubzala mipesa yatsopano. Pogwiritsa ntchito zomwe adapeza pogulitsa anthu akapolo, adamanga ma chateaus m'zaka zamakedzana ndikupanga kupanga ndi kugulitsa vinyo kukhala kothandiza komanso mokulirapo.

Ambiri mwa eni eni malo akulu akulu anali ndi katundu wawo kudziko panthawi ya chisinthiko ndipo pambuyo pa kusinthaku minda ya mpesa ndi chateaux izi zidagulitsidwa, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti amalonda olemera alowe bizinesiyi mosavuta. Amalondawo anapanganso mabanki ndi makampani a inshuwalansi kuti akonzekere ndi kuteteza malonda awo.

Tourism

Chithunzi chovomerezeka ndi Karfa Diallo

Alendo omwe ali ndi chidwi ndi mbiri ya malonda a akapolo a Bordeaux ayenera kulankhulana ndi, Karfa Diallo (facebook.com/karfa.diallo), woyambitsa wa Memoires et Partage (makampeni ozungulira kukumbukira ukapolo wa transatlantic ku France ndi Senegal) komanso Woyambitsa Mwezi wa Mbiri Yakuda ku Bordeaux.

Mu 2009, Museum of Aquitaine inakhazikitsa chionetsero chokhazikika chofotokoza ntchito ya Bordeaux pazamalonda aukapolo ku France. Boma la mzindawo linaika chikwangwani padoko m’mphepete mwa mtsinjewu kuti lizikumbukira mbiri ya ukapolo. Ndiponso, chiboliboli cha Modeste Testas, mkazi waukapolo amene anagulidwa ndi abale aŵiri a ku Bordeaux, anachiimika m’mphepete mwa mtsinje. Kuonjezera apo, mzindawu wayika zikwangwani m’misewu isanu ya anthu okhalamo otchedwa amuna otchuka am’deralo omwe ankachita nawo malonda a akapolo odutsa nyanja ya Atlantic.

Uwu ndi mndandanda womwe umayang'ana kwambiri vinyo wa Bordeaux.

Sungani zambiri.

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Nkhani yakulemba, kuphatikiza zithunzi, sizingatengeredwe popanda chilolezo cholemba kuchokera kwa wolemba.

#vinyo #bordeaux

Ponena za wolemba

Dr. Elinor Garely - wapadera kwa eTN komanso mkonzi wamkulu, vinyo.travel

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