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Wopanga Malo Opambana a Central Park

Central Park - chithunzi mwachilolezo cha museumofthecity.org

Frederick Law Olmsted anali womanga malo waku America, mtolankhani, wotsutsa anthu, komanso woyang'anira boma. Amaonedwa kuti ndiye tate wa kamangidwe ka malo. Olmsted anali wotchuka popanga nawo mapaki ambiri odziwika bwino akutawuni ndi mnzake Calvert Vaux. Kupambana kodziwika kwambiri kwa Olmsted ndi Vaux kunali Central Park ku New York City zomwe zinapangitsa kuti pakhale mapaki ena ambiri akumatauni, kuphatikiza Prospect Park yomwe tsopano imatchedwa Borough of Brooklyn New York City ndi Cadwalader Park ku Trenton. Olmsted adatchedwa Charles Eliot Norton "wojambula wamkulu kwambiri yemwe America adapanga". Buku lake la 'A Journey in the Sea-board Slave States' lidasindikizidwa koyamba mu 1856 ndipo lidachokera ku maulendo akumwera omwe Olmsted, wothetsa mkangano adachita mu 1853-1854.

Ntchito zina zomwe Olmsted adachitapo ndi monga dongosolo loyamba komanso lakale kwambiri la malo osungiramo mapaki ndi malo osungiramo anthu ku Buffalo, New York; paki yakale kwambiri ya dzikolo, Malo Osungiramo Niagara ku Niagara Falls, New York; umodzi wa midzi yoyamba yokonzedwa ku United States, Riverside, Illinois; Phiri la Royal Park ku Montreal, Quebec; Institute of Living ku Hartford, Connecticut; Chipatala cha Waterbury ku Waterbury, Connecticut; mkanda wa Emerald ku Boston, Massachusetts; Highland Park ku Rochester, New York; Grand Necklace of Parks ku Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Cherokee Park ndi mapaki ndi parkway system ku Louisville, Kentucky; Walnut Hill Park ku New Britain, Connecticut, Biltmore Estate ku Asheville, North Carolina; mapulani a masters a University of California, Berkeley, University of Maine, Stanford University pafupi ndi Palo Alto, California, ndi The Lawrenceville School; ndi Montebello Park ku St. Catharines, Ontario. Ku Chicago ntchito zake ndi izi: Jackson Park; Washington Park; malo aakulu a paki a 1893 World's Columbian Exposition; kumwera kwa mphete ya "emerald necklace" ya Chicago; ndi kampasi ya University of Chicago. Ku Washington, DC, adagwira ntchito yoyang'ana malo ozungulira nyumba ya Capitol ya United States.

Ubwino wa zomangamanga za Olmsted unadziwika ndi anthu a m'nthawi yake, omwe adamupatsa ntchito zolemekezeka. Daniel Burnham ananena za iye, “Iye amapaka nyanja ndi malo otsetsereka amitengo; ndi udzu ndi mabanki ndi mapiri okutidwa ndi nkhalango; okhala ndi mapiri ndi mawonedwe a nyanja…” Ntchito yake, makamaka ku Central Park, idakhazikitsa mulingo wapamwamba kwambiri womwe ukupitilizabe kukhudza kamangidwe ka malo ku United States. Iye anali wotsutsa oyambirira komanso wofunikira m'gulu lachitetezo, kuphatikizapo ntchito ku Niagara Falls; dera la Adirondack kumpoto kwa New York; ndi dongosolo la National Park; ndipo ngakhale kudziwika pang'ono, adathandizira kwambiri kukonza ndi kupereka chithandizo chamankhwala ku Union Army mu Nkhondo Yachiŵeniŵeni.

Olmsted anabadwira ku Hartford, Connecticut, pa April 26, 1822. Bambo ake, John Olmsted, anali wamalonda wolemera amene anali ndi chidwi chambiri m’chilengedwe, anthu, ndi malo; Frederick Law ndi mng’ono wake John Hull, nawonso anasonyeza chidwi chimenechi. Amayi ake, Charlotte Law (Hull) Olmsted, adamwalira asanakwane tsiku lobadwa lachinayi. Bambo ake anakwatiranso mu 1827 kwa Mary Ann Bull, amene anali ndi chikondi champhamvu cha mwamuna wake m’chilengedwe ndipo mwina anali ndi kukoma kowonjezereka.

Wachichepere Olmsted atatsala pang'ono kulowa ku Yale College, poizoni wa sumac adafooketsa maso ake, motero adasiya mapulani aku koleji. Atagwira ntchito monga wophunzira wapanyanja, wamalonda, ndi mtolankhani, Olmsted anakhazikika pa famu ya maekala 125 mu January 1848 kugombe lakummwera kwa Staten Island, New York, famu yomwe bambo ake anamuthandizira kupeza.

Ukwati ndi banja

Pa June 13, 1859, Olmsted anakwatira Mary Cleveland (Perkins) Olmsted, mkazi wamasiye wa mbale wake John (yemwe anamwalira mu 1857). Anatenga ana ake atatu, John Charles Olmsted (wobadwa 1852), Charlotte Olmsted (yemwe anakwatira Bryant), ndi Owen Olmsted.

Frederick ndi Mary analinso ndi ana awiri pamodzi amene anapulumuka ukhanda; mwana wamkazi, Marion (wobadwa pa October 28, 1861), ndi mwana wamwamuna Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., wobadwa mu 1870. Mwana wawo woyamba, John Theodore Olmsted, anabadwa pa June 13, 1860, ndipo anamwalira ali wakhanda.

Olmsted anali ndi ntchito yayikulu mu utolankhani. Mu 1850 anapita ku England kukachezera minda ya anthu, kumene anachita chidwi kwambiri ndi Birkenhead Park ya Joseph Paxton. Pambuyo pake adalemba ndikusindikiza Walks and Talks of an American Farmer ku England mu 1852.

Pokhala wokondweretsedwa ndi chuma cha akapolo, anatumidwa ndi New York Daily Times (yomwe tsopano ndi The New York Times) kuti ayambe ulendo wautali wofufuza ku America South ndi Texas kuyambira 1852 mpaka 1857. Zotumiza zake ku Times zinasonkhanitsidwa kukhala mavoliyumu atatu. (A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States (1856), A Journey through Texas (1857), A Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853-4 (1860).

Olmsted ankaganiza kuti kusowa kwa azungu akum'mwera ndi umphawi wamba wa azungu otsika kunalepheretsa chitukuko cha zinthu zambiri zachitukuko zomwe zinkatengedwa mopepuka kumpoto.

Nzika za mayiko a thonje, onse, ndi osauka. Iwo amagwira ntchito pang'ono, ndipo pang'ono izo, moyipa; amapeza pang’ono, amagulitsa pang’ono; amagula pang'ono, ndipo amakhala ndi zochepa - zochepa kwambiri - za zabwino zonse ndi zotonthoza za moyo wotukuka. Kusauka kwawo sikuli kwakuthupi kokha; ndi zanzeru komanso zakhalidwe… Sanali owolowa manja kapena ochereza ndipo zolankhula zawo sizinali za amuna olimba mtima chimodzimodzi.

Ku Central Park ku New York City

Andrew Jackson Downing, womanga malo ochititsa chidwi wa ku Newburgh, New York, anali m'modzi mwa oyamba kupereka malingaliro oti akhazikitse Central Park ku New York monga wofalitsa magazini ya The Horticulturist. Mnzake komanso mlangizi wa Olmsted, Downing adamudziwitsa kwa katswiri womanga nyumba waku England Calvert Vaux, yemwe Downing adabwera naye ku US ngati wothandizana naye pazamangidwe. Pambuyo pa imfa ya Downing mu July 1852 pamoto wofalitsidwa kwambiri pa Hudson River steamboat Henry Clay, Olmsted ndi Vaux adalowa nawo mpikisano wokonza Central Park pamodzi, motsutsana ndi Egbert Ludovicus Viele pakati pa ena. Vaux adayitana Olmsted wosazindikira kuti achite nawo nawo mpikisano wojambula, atachita chidwi ndi malingaliro a Olmsted komanso kulumikizana ndi ndale. Izi zisanachitike, mosiyana ndi Vaux wodziwa zambiri, Olmsted anali asanapangepo kapena kupanga mawonekedwe a malo.

Mapulani awo a Greensward adalengezedwa mu 1858 ngati mapangidwe opambana. Atabwerera kuchokera Kumwera, Olmsted anayamba kuchita ndondomeko yawo nthawi yomweyo. Olmsted ndi Vaux anapitiriza mgwirizano wawo wamwambo kupanga pulani ya Prospect Park ku Brooklyn kuyambira 1865 mpaka 1873. Zimenezo zinatsatiridwa ndi ntchito zina. Vaux adakhalabe mumthunzi wa umunthu waukulu wa Olmsted pagulu komanso kulumikizana ndi anthu.

Mapangidwe a Central Park akuphatikiza kuzindikira kwa Olmsted pazagulu komanso kudzipereka kumalingaliro ofananirana. Mosonkhezeredwa ndi Downing ndi zomwe adawona pazagulu la anthu ku England, China, ndi American South, Olmsted adakhulupirira kuti malo obiriwira omwe amakhalapo nthawi zonse amayenera kupezeka kwa nzika zonse, ndipo amayenera kutetezedwa kuti asasokonezedwe mwachinsinsi. Mfundo imeneyi tsopano ndi yofunika kwambiri pa lingaliro la "paki ya anthu", koma silinaganizidwe ngati lofunikira panthawiyo. Nthawi ya Olmsted ngati Commissioner wa Central Park inali yovuta kwanthawi yayitali kuti asunge lingalirolo.

Mu 1865, Vaux ndi Olmsted anapanga Olmsted, Vaux & Co. Pamene Olmsted anabwerera ku New York, iye ndi Vaux anapanga Prospect Park; Mapaki a Riverside ku Chicago; mapaki a ku Buffalo, New York; Milwaukee, mkanda waukulu wa Wisconsin wa mapaki; ndi Niagara Reservation ku Niagara Falls.

Olmsted sanangopanga mapaki ambiri amzindawu kuzungulira dzikolo, adapanganso mapaki ndi njira zolumikizirana zolumikizira mizinda ina ndi malo obiriwira. Zina za zitsanzo zabwino koposa za sikelo imene Olmsted anagwirirapo ntchito ndizo mapaki opangidwa ku Buffalo, New York, imodzi mwa ntchito zazikulu kwambiri; dongosolo lomwe adapangira Milwaukee, Wisconsin, ndi mapaki opangira Louisville, Kentucky, omwe anali amodzi mwa mapaki anayi okha opangidwa ndi Olmsted padziko lonse lapansi.

Olmsted anali wothandizana nawo pafupipafupi ndi mmisiri wa zomangamanga Henry Hobson Richardson, yemwe adamupangira mapulani okongoletsa malo azaka khumi ndi ziwiri, kuphatikiza komiti ya Richardson ya Buffalo State Asylum. Mu 1871, Olmsted adapanga malo a Chipatala cha Hudson River State kwa Amisala ku Poughkeepsie.

Mu 1883, Olmsted adakhazikitsa kampani yomwe imadziwika kuti ndiyo yoyamba yanthawi zonse yomanga malo ku Brookline, Massachusetts. Adayitana kunyumba ndi ofesi ku Fairsted. Tsopano ndi malo obwezeretsedwa a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. Kuchokera kumeneko, Olmsted adapanga Boston's Emerald Necklace, masukulu a Wellesley College, Smith College, Stanford University ndi University of Chicago, komanso 1893 World's Fair ku Chicago, pakati pa ntchito zina zambiri.

Frederick Law Olmsted amadziwika kuti "bambo wa American Landscape Architecture."

Stanley Turkel adasankhidwa kukhala 2020 Historian of the Year ndi Historic Hotels of America, pulogalamu yovomerezeka ya National Trust for Historic Preservation, yomwe adatchulidwapo kale mu 2015 ndi 2014. Turkel ndiye mlangizi wodziwika bwino wamahotelo ku United States. Amagwiritsa ntchito malo ake owerengera kuhotelo ngati mboni waluso pamilandu yokhudzana ndi hotelo, amapereka kasamalidwe ka chuma ndi kuyankhulana kwa hotelo. Amadziwika kuti ndi Master Hotel Supplier Emeritus ndi Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. [imelo ndiotetezedwa] 917-628-8549

Buku lake latsopano "Great American Hotel Architects Volume 2" langotulutsidwa kumene.

Mabuku Enanso Omasindikizidwa:

• Ma Hoteli Akuluakulu aku America: Apainiya a Makampani Ogulitsa (2009)

• Kumangidwa Pomaliza: Mahotela Akale Zaka 100+ ku New York (2011)

• Kumangidwa Komalizira: Mahotela Azaka 100+ Kum'mawa kwa Mississippi (2013)

• Hotel Mavens: Lucius M. Boomer, George C. Boldt, Oscar waku Waldorf (2014)

• Great American Hoteliers Voliyumu 2: Apainiya a Hotel Viwanda (2016)

• Kumangidwa Komalizira: Mahotela Akale + Zaka 100+ Kumadzulo kwa Mississippi (2017)

• Hotel Mavens Volume 2: Henry Morrison Flagler, Henry Bradley Plant, Carl Graham Fisher (2018)

• Great American Hotel Architects Volume I (2019)

• Hotel Mavens: Voliyumu 3: Bob ndi Larry Tisch, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz, Curt Strand

Mabuku onsewa atha kuyitanitsidwa kuchokera ku AuthorHouse poyendera stanleystkel.com  ndikudina pamutu wabukuli.

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