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Zithunzi Zakale za Wojambula Wodziwika Wamahotela waku America

Chithunzi chovomerezeka ndi S.Turkel
Written by Linda S. Hohnholz

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1920, Edward Hopper adatulutsa zithunzi ndi zolemba za Tavern Topics, zofalitsidwa ndikufalitsidwa ndi Waldorf Astoria. hotelo ku New York, ndipo mu 1924 ndi 1925, adajambula zolemba khumi ndi zisanu ndi zitatu zowala bwino za magazini yamalonda ya Hotel Management.

Wojambula waku America uyu, Edward Hopper, amadziwika chifukwa cha chidwi ndi mahotela, ma motelo, nyumba za alendo, komanso kuchuluka kwa ntchito zochereza alendo. Kuyambira 1920 mpaka 1925 adagwira ntchito yojambula zamalonda ku Hotel Management ndi Tavern Topics kuchokera ku Great Depression kudzera mu Cold War. Anawonjezera chidziwitso chake cha ntchito zochereza alendo monga mlendo wanthawi zonse m'malo angapo ogona pamaulendo apagalimoto akutali omwe adayenda ndi mkazi wake, wojambula Josephine Hopper. Kuyambira pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1920 mpaka kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1960, Hopper adafufuza nkhani za ntchito zochereza alendo pazithunzi, zojambula zamadzi, zojambula, ndi zojambula. Nthawi zina ankazitchula kuti "hotelo" kapena "motelo," koma nthawi zambiri sankatero. Zoposa theka ndizophatikizika zamasamba, osapanga pang'ono kupanga ndi chilolezo chaluso.

Edward ndi Jo amakhala moyo wawo wonse ku Manhattan, komwe, monga madera ena kudera lonselo, adakumana ndi ntchito yayikulu yomanga mahotelo m'zaka zoyambirira za zana la makumi awiri. Ndalama zopangidwa ndi hotelo zinatsika ndi 25 peresenti m'zaka za 1929 mpaka 1935, zomwe sizinalepheretse Hopper.

Pakati pa Nkhondo Zapadziko Lonse, Hopper adapanga zojambula zosachepera ziwiri ndi zojambula zisanu zomwe zidapanga zida zamahotelo osiyanasiyana akumatauni - zina zomwe adazidziwa akukhala ku New York, pomwe ena adakumbukiranso zithunzi zomwe zidaperekedwa patsamba la Hotel Management m'zaka zomwe adakhala. anapanga zovundikira zake. Nthawi zambiri, zikutozi zikuwonetsa maanja okongola akuvina, kudya komanso kukwera mabwato kuhotelo.

Kuyang'ana kuchokera pamalo owoneka bwino a nyumba yawo ku 3 Washington Square North ku New York, a Hoppers akadakumana ndi nyumba zingapo zobwereketsa zosakanizidwa, kuphatikiza kampani yansanjika khumi ku 53 Washington Square South. Yopangidwa ndi McKim, Mead & White ndipo idamangidwa mu 1893, iyi inali gawo la Hotel Judson, ndalama zomwe zidapindulira tchalitchi cha Judson Memorial pafupi ndi nyumbayo. Hopper adajambula chithunzichi mu November, Washington Square, yomwe adayambitsa mu 1932 ndipo adawonjezerapo zida zakumwamba mu 1959. Bwenzi la Hoppers, wojambula John Sloan, ankakhala ku Hotel Judson kwa zaka zisanu ndi zitatu, mpaka atathamangitsidwa. New York University (yomwe idalanda malowa). Nyumba ya nsanjika zitatu, yowotchedwa ya lalanje yomwe ili kumanzere kwa mtundu wopaka utoto ndi House of Genius boardinghouse, ku 61 Washington Square South, yomwe, nthawi zosiyanasiyana kuyambira m'ma 1910 mpaka m'ma 1930, imakhala ndi akatswiri ojambula, olemba, ndakatulo, ndi oimba, kuphatikizapo Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passos, Eugene O'Neill, ndi Alan Seeger.

Mahotela apanyumba ndi ena mwazinthu zomwe zimaganiziridwa mumitundu yomanga ya Hopper yopangidwa muzosankha zosankhidwa monga House at Dusk. Nyumba zokhalamo zodziwika bwino zamatawuni zomwe zimapereka zobwereketsa kwakanthawi kochepa, izi zinali zogona koma zopezeka kuhotelo. Malo osakanizidwa apakati awa anali ndi mayunitsi angapo okhala ndi mabafa ogawana ndipo nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi zipinda zokhala ndi piyano ndipo amapatsidwa malo odyera, osunga pakhomo, komanso ntchito zantchito zatsiku ndi tsiku.

Zotsatira zazithunzi zosachepera zisanu ndi zinayi zojambulidwa, Hotel Lobby, mwina ndizomwe Hopper amachitira pazantchito zochereza alendo.

Atakhala pampando wotukulidwa, mtsikana wina wovala diresi labuluu akuwerenga buku lake, atatsamira m'makona omwe amafanana ndi a mnzake wokhwima kwambiri panjira. Pakhoma lakumbuyo, kuwona kudzera pazitseko zakuda pakhomo lotseguka kumawonetsa malo odyera okhala ndi matebulo okutidwa ndi bafuta. Mizere yopangidwa pansi imasonyeza mfundo zamapangidwe a nthawi yomwe amachitira kapeti ngati njira yowongolera makamu ndi kudziwa momwe mipando imayikidwa. Chofunikira kwambiri pakuwongolera nyengo ndi khomo lozungulira-lodulidwa kumanzere mu Hotel Lobby. Pazithunzi zonse zamatawuni za Hopper, zitseko zozungulira zimawonekera m'maphunziro awiri okha a ntchitoyi komanso pazithunzi zina (Sunlight in a Cafeteria, 1958, mu Yale University Art Gallery). Kusiyanasiyana kwa zitseko zozungulira kunalipo kuyambira chapakati pa zaka za m'ma 1943 ndi cholinga chowongolera mpweya wabwino komanso kutentha kosasintha powonekera. Posalola mpweya kulowa kunja, chitseko chozungulira chinali, malinga ndi mawu a wolimbikitsa oyambirira, “chotsekedwa nthaŵi zonse.” Zimenezi zimathandiza kufotokoza mmene chithunzi cha Hotel Lobby, chomwe chinamalizidwira mu January XNUMX, komanso chosonyeza banja lina atavala zovala za m’nyengo yozizira, chinkasonyezanso mkazi wosavala chovala atavala diresi ya mikono yaifupi.

Zambiri mwa 18 zodziwika bwino za Hopper HM zidachitika chapakati pa 1920s. Nthawi zambiri, zikutozi zikuwonetsa banja lokongola limodzi kapena angapo akusangalala ndi zochitika monga kuvina, kudya ndi mabwato omwe ali pafupi ndi hotelo yomwe idapangidwa. Hopper anagwiritsa ntchito mahotela enieni—Cincinnatian Hotel ya ku Ohio ndi Mohonk Mountain House ku New York—monga chilimbikitso pazikuto ziwirizi. Mitundu yopepuka ya zithunzi ndi zochitika zamphamvu ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi ntchito zodziwika bwino za Hopper, monga "Automat" kapena "Nighthawks" yodziwika bwino. The Hoppers, Edward ndi Josephine [omwenso anali wojambula], ankadya chakudya chamasana tsiku lililonse ku The Hotel Dixie ku New York.

Ndipo mwina potengera malingaliro ochereza kuti zonse ndi za alendo, VMFA yapita patsogolo, ndikukonzanso chipinda cha hotelo chomwe chidawonedwa mu ntchito ya Hopper ya 1957 "Western Hotel."

Edward ndi Jo anayamba kubwereka nyumba zapachilimwe ku South Truro pa Cape Cod mu 1930 ndipo ankagula malo kenako n’kumanga nyumba kumeneko zaka zingapo pambuyo pake. Pofika zaka za m'ma 1940, Cape Cod inali ndi nyumba zingapo zoyendera alendo - zokhala ndi mabanja amodzi omwe amapereka zipinda zokhalamo kwakanthawi kochepa, nthawi zambiri nyengo. Pokhala ndi chidwi chozama ndi zomangamanga, Hopper anajambula nyumba zingapo za alendo pa ntchito yake yayitali, koma akuwoneka kuti adakondwera kwambiri ndi nyumba imodzi yotereyi ku Provincetown ku Cape Cod. Anakhala usiku wautali atayimitsidwa pamaso pa nyumbayo, akupanga zojambula, zomwe zinachititsa kuti apange chithunzi chomwe chimapereka chithunzi cha zipinda zapakhomo za nyumbayo - mwachiwonekere, anthu okhalamo adadabwa ndi zomwe wojambulayo akuchita, atakhala pamenepo mu Buick yake yojambula.

A Hoppers adayenda maulendo ataliatali nthawi ndi nthawi kufunafuna nkhani kudutsa New England, Kumadzulo, ndi Mexico, pakati pa madera ena. Pamasewerawa, adakhala m'nyumba za alendo ndipo, pamapeto pake, ndalama zomwe Edward adapeza zidakula, m'mamotelo ndi makhothi amagalimoto. Magawo a zolemba za Jo - zoyambira pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1930 mpaka 1960s, ndipo posachedwapa zaperekedwa ku Provincetown Art Association ndi Museum - zimawulula tsamba ndi tsamba la malongosoledwe owonjezereka a malo ogonawa komanso momwe banjali likumvera pa iwo. Chimodzi mwazinthu zokongola komanso zotalikirapo mwazolemba izi zikukambirana za kukhala kwawo ku Weseman Motor Court ku El Paso kuyambira pa Disembala 15 mpaka Disembala 22, 1952. Hopper anajambula Western Motel panthawi ya chiyanjano ku Huntington Hartford Foundation ku Pacific Palisades, California, koma Canvas imadzutsanso kufotokozera kwa Jo komanso atolankhani amasiku ano akukambirana malo ogona ku El Paso.

The Hoppers anatenga maulendo ataliatali asanu kupita ku Mexico pakati pa 1943 ndi 1955, komwe adayenderanso zigawo zingapo ku United States; Iwo anayenda pa sitima yapamtunda mu 1943, koma m’madera ena anayenda pagalimoto. Nthawi zambiri amakulitsa malo potengera momwe malo awo amakhalira komanso momwe zipinda zawo zimawonekera komanso kuchokera padenga la nyumbayo. Zambiri zomwe timadziwa za nthawi ya Hopper ku Mexico zimachokera ku makalata omwe awiriwa amalembera pa hotelo ndi makalata a motelo ndi makadi. Pokhala pachibwenzi kuyambira ulendo wake woyamba wopita ku Mexico, Saltillo Rooftops amalemba chitofu cha padenga la hotelo yake ku Guarhado House (kumene iye ndi Jo adakhala) kutsogolo kuti athetse kufalikira kwa mapiri a Sierra Madre kumbuyo. Ku Monterrey Cathedral, abwereranso ku chizolowezi chake chogwiritsa ntchito malo ake ogona (panthawiyi Hotel Monterrey) ngati chida chopangira zinthu zopangira mahotela ndi nyumba zina - zikwangwani zocheperako za Hotel Bermuda zimawonekera kumanzere kumanzere. Mahotela ndi ma motelo atha kupereka fanizo lothandiza pakumvetsetsa ntchito zambiri za Hopper. Ankaganiza kuti mahotela ndi zojambula zimapereka zokumana nazo kwakanthawi, zimatumikira anthu angapo, ndipo, pamapeto pake, ndi zongopeka zopangidwa mwaluso kwambiri. Hopper ankawona luso lake - zojambula zake komanso zojambula zamadzi - monga malo omwe angasungirepo ndalama kwakanthawi komanso komwe angayeserepo pambuyo pake ndi magawo ofanana akuwonetsa ndi malingaliro. Zithunzi makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu zisanu ndi zinayi za izi, zojambula zamadzi, zojambula, zosindikiza, ndi zoyambira zamagazini zikuwonetsedwa-pamodzi ndi ntchito makumi atatu ndi zisanu pamutuwu za ojambula ena-pachiwonetsero cha Edward Hopper ndi American Hotel ku Virginia Museum of Fine Arts ku Richmond. .

Ndikoyenera kuti chiwonetserochi chikhale chokonzekera ndikuyamba kuwonekera pamenepo. A Hoppers adayendera Richmond kangapo. Zojambula zake zomwe zidzawonetsedwa m'ziwonetsero zotsatizana zaka ziwiri. Hopper adabwerera ku nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zakale mu 1953 kuti akawonetsere Woweruza wa Jury, panthawi yomwe nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zakale idagula Nyumba pa Dusk. Chithunzi kuchokera paulendowu chikuwonetsa wojambula wa Hopper ndi Richmond Bell Worsham atayimirira pamaso pa utoto wa Hopper Early Sunday Morning. Pambuyo polankhulana mozama, kudzera m'malo omwe banjali lidagona paulendowu, wotsogolera nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zakale, a Leslie Cheek Jr., adatsimikizira Hopper kuti, "Mukakhala ku Richmond mudzakhala ku Jefferson Hotel, nyumba ya Beaux-Arts ndikukhulupirira kuti mudzasangalala nayo. .” Panali mahotela ambiri momwe Cheek akanatha kuyika Hopper, koma adawonetsetsa kuti wojambulayo akukhala pamalo odziwika kuti "abwino kwambiri kumwera."

Ntchito ya Hopper ya Hotel Management idakhudzadi ntchito yake. Zinthu zimene anachitira Hotel Management—ndiponso zithunzi ndi zotsatsa zina ndi nkhani zina—zinapereka nkhokwe ya zithunzi ndi malingaliro amene akanabwererako mobwerezabwereza.

Stanley Turkel adasankhidwa kukhala 2020 Historian of the Year ndi Historic Hotels of America, pulogalamu yovomerezeka ya National Trust for Historic Preservation, yomwe adatchulidwapo kale mu 2015 ndi 2014. Turkel ndiye mlangizi wodziwika bwino wamahotelo ku United States. Amagwiritsa ntchito malo ake owerengera kuhotelo ngati mboni waluso pamilandu yokhudzana ndi hotelo, amapereka kasamalidwe ka chuma ndi kuyankhulana kwa hotelo. Amadziwika kuti ndi Master Hotel Supplier Emeritus ndi Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. [imelo ndiotetezedwa] 917-628-8549

Buku lake latsopano "Great American Hotel Architects Volume 2" langotulutsidwa kumene.

Mabuku Enanso Omasindikizidwa:

• Ma Hoteli Akuluakulu aku America: Apainiya a Makampani Ogulitsa (2009)

• Kumangidwa Pomaliza: Mahotela Akale Zaka 100+ ku New York (2011)

• Kumangidwa Komalizira: Mahotela Azaka 100+ Kum'mawa kwa Mississippi (2013)

• Hotel Mavens: Lucius M. Boomer, George C. Boldt, Oscar waku Waldorf (2014)

• Great American Hoteliers Voliyumu 2: Apainiya a Hotel Viwanda (2016)

• Kumangidwa Komalizira: Mahotela Akale + Zaka 100+ Kumadzulo kwa Mississippi (2017)

• Hotel Mavens Volume 2: Henry Morrison Flagler, Henry Bradley Plant, Carl Graham Fisher (2018)

• Great American Hotel Architects Volume I (2019)

• Hotel Mavens: Voliyumu 3: Bob ndi Larry Tisch, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz, Curt Strand

Mabuku onsewa atha kuyitanitsidwa kuchokera ku AuthorHouse poyendera stanleystkel.com  ndikudina pamutu wabukuli.

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Linda S. Hohnholz

Linda Hohnholz wakhala mkonzi wamkulu wa eTurboNews kwa zaka zambiri.
Amakonda kulemba ndipo amamvetsera kwambiri tsatanetsatane.
Amayang'aniranso pazinthu zonse zoyambirira komanso zofalitsa.

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